# Cross elasticity of demand

Cross elasticity of demand

Cross elasticity of demand is a measure of the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good to a change in the price of another good (X). It is calculated by the formula:

Cross elasticity of demand is important for businesses as it helps them to identify the goods for which demand for their product is more elastic. This helps businesses to identify their competitors and decide on the pricing of their product. For example, if the cross elasticity of demand for a particular product is high, this implies that a change in the price of a competing product will result in a larger change in the demand for the product. This helps businesses to price their product accordingly.

## Example of Cross elasticity of demand

• In the case of cars and gas, the cross elasticity of demand will be positive, as an increase in the price of gas will lead to an increase in the demand for cars. This is because people will be looking for more fuel efficient cars as gas prices increase.
• In the case of coffee and tea, the cross elasticity of demand will be negative, as an increase in the price of coffee will lead to a decrease in the demand for tea. This is because people may switch to tea if coffee becomes too expensive.

Overall, cross elasticity of demand is a measure of the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good to a change in the price of another good and is an important metric for businesses to identify their competitors and decide on the pricing of their product.

## Formula of Cross elasticity of demand

Cross elasticity of demand is calculated using the following formula$\begin{equation} \text{Cross Elasticity of Demand} = \frac{\%\Delta Q_X}{\%\Delta P_Y} \end{equation}$

Where Δ QX is the change in the quantity demanded of good X and Δ PY is the change in the price of good Y.

The interpretation of the cross elasticity of demand depends on its sign. If the cross elasticity of demand is positive, then the goods are considered substitutes and a change in the price of one good will lead to an increase in the demand for the other good. Conversely, if the cross elasticity of demand is negative, then the goods are considered complements and a change in the price of one good will lead to a decrease in the demand for the other good.

## When to use Cross elasticity of demand

Cross elasticity of demand can be used in different scenarios, such as:

• To identify competitors: Cross elasticity of demand helps businesses to identify their competitors by determining which product's price affects the demand for their product the most. This allows them to focus their efforts on those products and adjust their pricing accordingly.
• For pricing decisions: Cross elasticity of demand can be used to assess the sensitivity of demand to a change in price. This allows businesses to set their prices in such a way that they maximize their profits while still maintaining a competitive edge.
• To assess the effect of changes in other economic and market variables: Cross elasticity of demand can also be used to assess the effect of changes in other economic and market variables, such as income, on the demand for a product. This allows businesses to assess the effect of such changes and adjust their pricing accordingly.

Cross elasticity of demand is a useful tool for businesses to assess the responsiveness of the demand for their product to changes in the prices of other goods. This helps them to identify their competitors and assess the effect of changes in other economic and market variables, which in turn helps them to adjust their pricing accordingly and maximize their profits.

## Types of Cross elasticity of demand

• Perfectly Elastic: Perfectly elastic cross elasticity of demand refers to a situation where the change in the price of good Y results in an infinite change in the quantity demanded of good X. This situation is usually not observed in the real world.
• Perfectly Inelastic: Perfectly inelastic cross elasticity of demand is when the change in the price of good Y does not result in any change in the quantity demanded of good X.
• Unit Elastic: Unit elastic cross elasticity of demand is when the percentage change in the quantity demanded of good X is equal to the percentage change in the price of good Y.
• Inelastic: Inelastic cross elasticity of demand is when the percentage change in the quantity demanded of good X is less than the percentage change in the price of good Y.
• Elastic: Elastic cross elasticity of demand is when the percentage change in the quantity demanded of good X is greater than the percentage change in the price of good Y.

## Steps of Cross elasticity of demand

• Estimating the demand: The first step in calculating the cross elasticity of demand is estimating the demand for the product. This is done by using the data collected from surveys, interviews or other sources.
• Calculating the change in the demand: Once the demand for the product is estimated, the next step is to calculate the change in the demand for the product. This is done by comparing the demand for the product before and after the change in the price of the competing product.
• Calculating the cross elasticity of demand: Lastly, the cross elasticity of demand is calculated by dividing the percentage change in the demand for the product by the percentage change in the price of the competing product.

## Advantages of Cross elasticity of demand

• Increases competitiveness: Cross elasticity of demand helps businesses to identify the competitors in the market and establish their position in the market. This helps them to be more competitive in the market.
• Helps in pricing decisions: Cross elasticity of demand helps businesses to understand the sensitivity of the demand for their product to the price of competing products. This helps them to make pricing decisions accordingly.
• Helps in product differentiation: Cross elasticity of demand helps businesses to differentiate their products from the competitors. This helps them to gain a competitive edge over the competitors.

## Limitations of Cross elasticity of demand

• It cannot be used to measure the effect of a change in the price of the same good as this is measured by the price elasticity of demand.
• It does not take into account non-price factors such as income, tastes and preferences that can also affect demand.
• It does not measure the absolute effect of a change in the price of a good, only the relative effect.

## Other approaches related to Cross elasticity of demand

• Substitution Effect: The substitution effect is an economic concept in which a change in the price of one product results in an increase in the demand for a substitute product. This concept is related to cross elasticity of demand, as it shows the effect of a change in the price of a particular product on the demand for a substitute product.
• Income Elasticity of Demand: This is a measure of the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good to a change in real income.

The income elasticity of demand is related to cross elasticity of demand, as it shows the effect of a change in real income on the demand for a particular product.

In summary, cross elasticity of demand is an important measure for businesses as it helps them to identify the goods for which demand for their product is more elastic. Cross elasticity of demand is related to other economic concepts such as substitution effect and income elasticity of demand.