Organizational behavior, is the action of the members of the organization (both employees and managers) focused on the objectives of the organization, due to internal and external factors (formal and cultural). The objective of management is to modify the behaviour of employees, to strengthen positive behaviours and eliminate negative behaviours.
Models of men in human behaviour research
Model of economic man
- A man only increases effort because of influence of economic incentives (positive and negative)
- Man acts as a machine (of particular strength, speed, endurance)
- A man is considered in isolation from the group in which they work
- The existence of the group (conflict, friendship, relationships between people) is ignored
- Theory of interpersonal relations
- The psychological motives of behaviour, group relations, causes of conflict and informal relationships
- The hierarchy of human needs (by A. Maslow): physiological needs, safety needs, the need to belong, the need for recognition, the need for self-actualization, the need for knowledge, the need for aesthetic experiences.
Principles of behaviour modification
- activity bringing pleasant consequences is likely to be repeated, behaviour bringing negative consequences, is unlikely to be repeated (this claim is based on the model of stimulus-> response-> consequences-> future responses)
- Usually it is more effective to reward desired behavior than punishing unwanted
- do not reward all equally
- no reaction also can modify the behavior
- inform subordinates what to do to get the reinforcement
- tell subordinates what they are doing wrong
- employees should not be punished in front of others
- manager has to be fair
- Identify awards valued by each of the subordinates
- Set the desired level of efficiency
- Ensure affordability of a set level of efficiency
- Linking reward to efficiency of results
- Analyse the factors that may limit the effectiveness of reward
- Ensuring the adequacy of awards to employees needs.
Behavior modification techniques
- Positive reinforcing (the consequence of previous behavior encourages its repetition)
- Avoidance learning (occurs when a person avoid or escape from unpleasant consequences)
- Blanking (no reinforcement of the unwanted behaviour, ignore bad behaviour)
- Punishment (inappropriate behaviour has negative consequences)
The theory of expectations
- People have different needs and expectations, shaped by previous experience
- People make decisions about their behaviour in organizations
- People have different needs, desires and goals
- People choose behaviour based on the expectation that this behaviour leads to the desired result
Theory of justice
An important factor of motivation, efficiency and satisfaction is an individual assessment by an employee of justice or equity of awards received by others, justice is the ratio of employee effort and the rewards received.
- Argyris, C. (1960). Understanding organizational behavior.
- Greenberg, J., & Baron, R. A. (2008). Behavior in organizations.
- Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1993). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources. Prentice-Hall, Inc.
- Miles, R. H. (1980). Macro organizational behavior. Goodyear Pub. Co..
- Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. (2003). Essentials of organizational behavior (Vol. 200, No. 1). Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.