Process of innovation
|Process of innovation|
Innovation is a process of creating something new that develops overall effects in the economy and technological approach (Mónica Edwards-Schachter 2018, p. 1). It is a presntation of something completely new or just slightly upgraded goods and services (Paula Anzola-Román 2018, p. 234). Upgrading the innovation process makes investors able to finance completely new investments (Marisa Dziallas 2018, p. 1). It is also very important to remember that innovation always require some kind of investment that company need to put in it. This can include assets, salaries or purchase of materials and more. Proper investment can give in potential returns in the future (OECD 2005, p. 35).
- Basic research - theoretical considerations, the aim of which is to create new ideas.
- Applied research - finding practical solutions for created projects.
- Development works - creation of a prototype.
- Implementation - starting the manufacturing activity, checking the production technology (see: importance of technology).
- Production - start of production using the technology.
- Sales - initiation of sales.
Types of innovation
There are few types of innovation (R.P. Jayani Rajapathirana 2018, p. 46):
Policies of innovation
It is possible to divide three policies of innovation (Jan Fagerberg 2018, p. 1568):
- Eco-innovation policy,
- Transformative innovation policy,
- Mission-oriented policy.
- Anzola-Román (2018). Organizational innovation, internal R&D and externally sourced innovation practices: Effects on technological innovation outcomes, Journal of Business Research, vol. 91
- Dziallas Marisa (2018). Innovation indicators throughout the innovation process: An extensive literature analysis, Technovation
- Edwards-Schachter Mónica (2018). The nature and variety of innovation, International Journal of Innovation Studies, vol. 2, no. 2
- Fagerberg Jan (2018). Mobilizing innovation for sustainability transitions: A comment on transformative innovation policy, Research policy, vol. 47, no. 9
- Hung, S. C. (2004). Explaining the process of innovation: The dynamic reconciliation of action and structure, Human Relations, vol. 57, no. 11
- Jayani Rajapathirana R. P. (2018). Relationship between innovation capability, innovation type, and firm performance, Journal of Innovation & Knowledge, vol. 3
- Kaufmann, A., & Tödtling, F. (2001). Science–industry interaction in the process of innovation: the importance of boundary-crossing between systems, Research policy, vol. 30, no. 5
- OECD (2005). Guidelines for collecting and interpreting innovation data, Oslo Manual, 3rd eddition
Author: Olga Marmuszewska