Difference between revisions of "RATER model"

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Revision as of 14:36, 2 April 2016

RATER model
Primary topic
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Methods and techniques

RATER model is a evolution of SERVQUAL method presented by A. Parasuraman, V. Zeithaml and L. Berry in 1988. The main idea is based on 5 gaps, which result in lower than expected quality of services. The authors proposed that the difference between expected and perceived quality should be evaluated in 5 dimensions:

  • Reliability
  • Assurance
  • Tangibles
  • Empathy
  • Responsiveness

The first letters of the dimensions create RATER. This order was established later, originally dimensions were presented in following order: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy.

To each of dimensions authors assigned 4-5 pairs of sentences (total 2 x 22 sentences) which described gaps between certain aspects of services. The detailed procedure was described in article SERVQUAL.


Is the company able to deliver what it promises? The main criteria taken into account by customers are:

  • Timeliness
  • Consistency
  • Regularity
  • Accuracy


It is important that customer trusts employees delivering service. In case of many services, e.g. medical, it is essential. Therefore the staff has to:

  • Be competent
  • Have respect for customer and other employees, partners, etc.
  • Be credible
  • Be confidential
  • Assure safety and security


The physical representation of the company and place where the service is delivered is usually the first what the customer sees. The first sight is crucial and can decide about whole service perception. The important aspects are:

  • Facilities
  • Equipment
  • Technology
  • Employees
  • Communication materials


In services it is necessary to care about every customer and even wider - stakeholder. In many services the customer arrives with his/her family of friends (e.g. hospital services). It is necessary to be empathetic to all stakeholders. Empathy can be shown by:

  • Access to staff, services, information
  • Clear, appropriate and timely communication
  • Understanding the stakeholder
  • Appropriate service for customer needs
  • Individualized attention


The willingness to help and provide prompt service can buy the heart of the customer. The most important aspects are:

  • Willingness to help
  • Prompt attention to requests
  • Problems resolution
  • Complaint handling
  • Flexibility


Author: Slawomir Wawak