Market value added (MVA) is the excess of the market value of the company over the value invested in the company capital. The concept was first introduced by GB Stewart in 1990. MVA is expressed by the formula:

MVA = V - K

where K is the value of capital invested by owners and creditors in operational assets.

Traditional financial ratios based on accounting data do not include all factors affecting goodwill. Managing company value zrodzło the need for additional measures of assessing the performance of the company. The company's value added (MVA) and economic value added (EVA) measures measure the company's value.

The capital invested in operating assets includes:

• The book value of long-term debt (the book value of this debt is approximately equal to its market value D)
• Corrected book value of Ke's equity, that is:

K = D + Ke

MVA is defined as the surplus of the market value of the enterprise over the value of the capital invested in the enterprise. Because in joint-stock companies the market value of equity equals the product of the market price of one share and the number of issued shares, MVA is equal to: MVA = market price of shares * number of shares - book value of equity

MVA is the difference between the value of total cash inflows that all shareholders could have withdrawn from the company and the amount they had previously invested by purchasing shares and reinvesting profits.

The relationship between the market value of invested capital (V) and its carrying amount (K) can be presented using the so-called economic balance. It is a "statement showing the state of capital and net operating assets according to their market values."

The balance presented in this way is used in managing the capital invested in the enterprise. The economic balance expresses the formula:

Ve = Vd + V = K + MVA

Where:

Ve - market value of equity, i.e. the current market price of one share multiplied by the number of all issued shares.

Vd - the market value of foreign capital, i.e. the market value of interest-bearing debt, Vd can only be determined when it is listed on the stock exchange or on the over-the-counter market.

V - the market value of the enterprise is the sum of the market value of equity and foreign capital, in parallel it is the market value of the net operating assets.

K - balance-sheet value of invested capital

## What is the added value of a company in the marketplace?

The MVA sources are:

• innovative projects,
• marketable assets including - buyers, technologies, distribution, sales.

The difference between the market value and the book value of equity is usually a relatively large positive number. This difference is explained by the value of intellectual capital and, to a lesser extent, by other factors (e.g. investor attitudes, the situation on the whole market, etc.).

From the formula:

MVA = p * N - Ke

it follows that the market added value is the higher the larger the market value of the enterprise and the smaller the adjusted book value of its equity. The market value added can be both positive and negative. Negative MVA means that the company does not create additional value, which can result from many reasons:

in a given company, industry or entire economy temporary crisis phenomena may occur, causing a temporary drop in sales and thus a decrease in the efficiency of invested capital, there are significant changes in the company's environment, causing a permanent lack of its development prospects, the management does not attach due importance to the issue of value creation and management, pursuing other objectives not necessarily consistent with the shareholders' objectives, extraordinary random events like fire, flood, strike downturn in the markets the company handles. MVA is an external measure of the value created, because it depends on the investors' verification of the real value of the enterprise on the capital market based on the assessment of its development potential. From the MVA shareholders' point of view,> 0 means profits, MVA <0 means investment losses. If the company creates an additional value from the invested capital, then the MVA is positive.

## Summary

1. If the company's book value is negative, its MVA is also negative.
2. If the market added value is negative and the sum of the components correcting the book value of equity does not exceed MVA, then the market value of the enterprise is below its book value.
3. The market value added of enterprises can be calculated as the sum of the MVA of these enterprises (MVA is an additive measure).
4. MVA is the result of activities undertaken in the sphere of management.
5. The MVA horizon should be long-term.

## The relationship between MVA and EVA

The market value added (MVA) is largely influenced by share prices. However, the economic added value (EVA) is mainly related to the operational and financial management of the company. Between these two quantities there is a relationship in which the MVA value equals the sum of the discounted EVA. If shareholders expect positive economic value added in future periods, this means that the value of the company will increase by EVA. Therefore, the total value of the company is equal to the sum of discounted future economic value added and the amount of current market value added. The relationship between MVA and EVA presents the expected results of investors' profits resulting from investments in shares issued through the company. The market added value is used to assess the management activity of the market. If it is positive, it indicates the company's investments in owned property. However, the assessment of the board's work by shareholders is made on the basis of economic added value. EVA is a good tool for this because it is not related to the price of shares, but it takes into account operational and financial management.