Non-operating expense is a kind of expense that is not related to core business operations, e.g. selling products or services. There are four types of non-operating expenses: depreciation, amortization, interest charges, other costs of borrowing.
If the non-operating expenses are low, they can be excluded from standing analysis. An example of measure that ignores non-operating costs is EBITDAR.
However, sometimes it is convenient to use non-operating costs to optimize taxes. Using higher rate of depreciation or amortization will increase costs and decrease tax burden. The cash flow will remain the same. Therefore, the optimization won't impact financial measures that are related e.g. with liquidity or credit score.
Amortization - in the balance sheet and tax law means the cost associated with the gradual wear of fixed assets and intangible assets. Amortization is a cost that does not involve cash outflow. Depreciation combines the concept of redemption. The redemption is the consumption of a fixed asset (intangible and legal value) from the beginning of its use expressed in value. According to tax law, depreciation must begin on the first day of the month following the month in which the component was entered in the register. Fixed assets are entered into the register no later than the month of their transfer for use. Depreciation is subject to property, plant and equipment: real estate, machinery, equipment, means of transport and other things; improvements in foreign fixed assets; live inventory as well as intangible and legal assets, i.e. Non-monetary, undefined activities: computer software, development costs, licenses, patents, commodity patterns, goodwill. Methods for depreciation of vital assets:
Interest - cost charged for using the borrowed capital to its owner; the standardized measure of this cost per unit of capital and the annual useful life is the interest rate.The amount depends on the percentage, the size of the capital, the time for which it was given. The applied interest rate calculation calendar is also relevant. use days in the year used for calculations.Methods of determining interest:
- simple interest - calculated on the capital in proportion to the interest period, charged after accruing (from below),
- compound interest - after accrued period accrued interest is added to capital, after the next period interest is calculated on their total amount,
- interest accrued on a continuous basis, applicable, for example, in the valuation of derivatives (options, futures contracts, etc.)
- discount - interest is calculated and charged in advance.
Examples of Non-operating expense
- Interest costs: Interest costs refer to the cost of borrowing money. They can be incurred when a company takes on debt or issues bonds. For example, if a company takes out a loan to purchase new equipment, it will have to pay interest on the amount borrowed.
- Depreciation: Depreciation is the process of allocating the cost of an asset over its useful life. For example, if a company purchases a machine for $1,000, it may depreciate the machine over five years, meaning that it will record an expense of $200 per year for five years.
- Amortization: Amortization is similar to depreciation, but it refers to the process of allocating the cost of intangible assets, such as patents and copyrights, over their useful lives. For example, if a company purchases a patent for $10,000, it may amortize the cost over 10 years, meaning that it will record an expense of $1,000 per year for 10 years.
- Other costs of borrowing: Other costs of borrowing include fees associated with taking out loans and issuing bonds. These costs may include application fees, processing fees, legal fees, and so on. For example, if a company takes out a loan to purchase new equipment, it may incur application and processing fees that will be recorded as non-operating expenses.
Advantages of Non-operating expense
Non-operating expenses can provide several advantages to businesses. These advantages include:
- Reduced tax burden: Non-operating expenses, such as depreciation and amortization, can be used to reduce a company’s taxable income. This can effectively lower the overall tax burden on the company.
- Ability to access capital markets: Companies can use non-operating expenses, such as interest charges, to access capital markets. This allows them to borrow money at lower rates and create more financial flexibility.
- Greater financial flexibility: Non-operating expenses can be used to finance certain investments or projects, such as research and development. This can give businesses greater financial flexibility and open up new opportunities.
- Potential for earnings growth: Non-operating expenses can be used to fund projects that could potentially lead to increased earnings. This can help a company grow and become more profitable in the long run.
Limitations of Non-operating expense
Non-operating expenses can be a useful tool for businesses to manage their cash flow, but there are important limitations that should be considered. These include:
- Timing: Non-operating expenses are usually recognized over a longer period of time than other expenses, and so they may not be accurately reflected in short-term cash flow statements.
- Accuracy: Non-operating expenses can be difficult to estimate accurately, as they are often dependent on uncertain future events.
- Complexity: Non-operating expenses can be complex to calculate and can add an additional level of complexity to financial reporting.
- Tax implications: Non-operating expenses can have significant tax implications, and careful consideration should be given to the tax implications of such expenses.
Non-operating expense is a kind of expense that is not related to core business operations, e.g. selling products or services. Other approaches related to Non-operating expense include:
- Taxation: Taxes are a form of non-operating expense that businesses must pay to the government.
- Bad Debt: Non-operating expenses related to bad debt include the costs associated with the collection or writing off of debt that a company is not able to collect.
- Legal fees: Legal fees are a type of non-operating expense associated with the hiring of legal services such as attorneys, accountants, and other types of advisors.
- Research and development: Research and development costs are a type of non-operating expense associated with the development of new products, services, and processes.
In summary, non-operating expenses are expenses that are not directly related to core business operations. They can include taxes, bad debt, legal fees, and research and development costs.
|Non-operating expense — recommended articles|
|Depreciable cost — Fictitious asset — Depreciation vs. amortization — Non current liability — Capital property — Asset based approach — Commercial facility — Cash earnings — Sum of years digits method|
- Campa José Manuel and Simi Kedia, (First Draft: November 1998; Current Draft: April 1999). Explaining the Diversification Discount Stern School of Business New York University.
- David Aboody, Mary E. Barth, Ron Kasznik, (September 1998). Revaluations of fixed assets and future firm performance: Evidence from the UK Journal of Accounting and Economics, pp 149—178.
- Gazda, J., Kováč, V., Tóth, P., Drotár, P., & Gazda, V. (2017). Tax optimization in an agent-based model of real-time spectrum secondary market. Telecommunication Systems, 64(3), 543-558.
- Howard Andrew F., University of British Columbia,Vancouver, BC, Canada. Improved Accounting of Interest Charges in Equipment Costing Journal of Forest Engineering, pp.44-45.
- Jung Min Park, USA. Efficient Multicast Packet Authentication Using Signature Amortization School of Electrical and Computer Engineering Purdue University.
- Preinreich Gabriel A. D. ( September 1937). Valuation and Amortization The Accounting Review Vol. 12, No. 3 (Sep., 1937), pp. 209-226.
Author: Magdalena Pawłowska