# Return on investment

Return on investment |
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**Return on Investment** (ROI) is a measure of the profitability of an investment, calculated by taking the total income generated by the investment and dividing it by the total cost of the investment. In the context of management, ROI helps to evaluate how well a particular project is performing, or the value of a particular asset, by measuring the ratio of the benefit or gain to the cost or investment of the project. This helps managers to make informed decisions about whether to invest in a certain project and to compare the performance of different investments.

## Example of return on investment

- An investor purchases a property for $200,000 and puts in $50,000 of renovations. After a year, the property is sold for $300,000, resulting in a gross return on investment (ROI) of 50%. The ROI is calculated by taking the total income generated by the investment (the $300,000 sale price) and dividing it by the total cost of the investment (the $200,000 purchase price plus the $50,000 in renovations).
- A business invests $100,000 to develop a new product line. After a year, the company earns $150,000 in revenue from the product line. The return on investment (ROI) is calculated by taking the total income generated by the investment (the $150,000 in revenue) and dividing it by the total cost of the investment (the $100,000). This results in a 50% return on investment.
- An investor purchases a stock for $10 per share and sells it a year later for $15 per share. The return on investment (ROI) is calculated by taking the total income generated by the investment (the $15 share price) and dividing it by the total cost of the investment (the $10 per share). This results in a 50% return on investment.

## Formula of return on investment

The formula for Return on Investment (ROI) is as follows:

ROI = (Net Profit / Total Investment) x 100

The formula is used to measure the profitability of an investment, by calculating the ratio of the total income generated by the investment to the total cost of the investment.

Net Profit is calculated by subtracting the total cost of the investment (including any taxes, fees, and other expenses) from the total income generated by the investment.

Total Investment is the total amount of money used to purchase the asset or invest in a certain project.

The result of the formula is expressed as a percentage and indicates the profitability of the investment. A higher ROI percentage indicates a better return on investment and a better decision by the investor. A lower percentage generally indicates a poorer return on investment and a poorer decision.

## When to use return on investment

Return on Investment (ROI) can be used to measure the profitability of an investment and to evaluate the performance of a project. It can also be used to compare the performance of different investments and to determine the best use of resources. ROI can be used in the following situations:

- To analyze the potential profitability of a new product or service.
- To measure the profitability of existing products and services.
- To compare the performance of different investments.
- To determine which investments will provide the greatest return on investment.
- To assess the risk associated with a particular investment.
- To make decisions about where to allocate resources.

## Types of return on investment

Return on Investment (ROI) is a measure of the profitability of an investment, calculated by taking the total income generated by the investment and dividing it by the total cost of the investment. It helps managers to make informed decisions about whether to invest in a certain project and to compare the performance of different investments. There are several different types of ROI that can be used to measure the performance of an investment. These include:

**Return on Assets (ROA)**: This measures the net income generated by the investments divided by the total assets of the company. It is an indication of how efficient the company is in using its assets to generate returns.**Return on Equity (ROE)**: This measures the net income generated by the investments divided by the total equity of the company. It is an indication of how efficiently the company is using its equity to generate returns.**Return on Investment (ROI)**: This measures the net income generated by the investments divided by the total cost of the investments. It is an indication of how profitable the investments are in comparison to the costs incurred.**Cost of Capital (COC)**: This measures the total cost of the investments divided by the total capital invested. It is an indication of how expensive the investments are in comparison to the capital invested.**Internal Rate of Return (IRR)**: This measures the rate of return that is expected to be earned on an investment over a period of time. It is an indication of the expected profitability of an investment.

## Steps of calculating return on investment

Return on Investment (ROI) is a measure of the profitability of an investment, calculated by taking the total income generated by the investment and dividing it by the total cost of the investment. To calculate ROI, the following steps should be taken:

- Determine the total cost of the investment. This includes the initial cost of the asset as well as any additional costs associated with it, such as interest payments, taxes, and other costs.
- Calculate the total income generated by the investment. This includes any revenue generated from the asset, such as capital gains, dividends, or interest.
- Divide the total income by the total cost of the investment to get the ROI.
- Compare the ROI with the ROI of other investments to determine which is the most profitable.
- Make informed decisions about investments by evaluating their ROI.
- Monitor the performance of the investment over time to ensure that the ROI remains high.

## Advantages of return on investment

Return on Investment (ROI) is a popular measure of the profitability of an investment. It provides a comparison between the total cost and total benefit of a particular project or asset, making it a helpful tool for managers to make decisions about investments and compare the performance of different investments. ROI has several advantages, including:

- It allows managers to make informed decisions about investments by providing a comparison between the total cost and total benefit of a project or asset.
- It provides a measure of the profitability of an investment and helps managers to evaluate how well a project is performing.
- It helps managers to compare the performance of different investments, so they can make the most efficient use of their resources.
- It is a simple calculation that can be easily understood and applied to different investments.
- It provides a clear indication of the return on an investment, which can be used to make decisions about future investments.

## Limitations of return on investment

One of the limitations of return on investment (ROI) is that it does not take into account the time value of money. This means that ROI does not consider the effects of inflation and other economic factors on the total cost of the investment over the long-term. Additionally, ROI does not account for the risk associated with a particular investment, or the cost of financing the investment. Moreover, ROI does not factor in intangible benefits, such as customer satisfaction, brand recognition and employee morale, that may be generated by the investment. Finally, ROI only looks at the benefits of the investment in terms of financial return, and does not measure other types of benefits such as environmental, social and cultural benefits.

In addition to Return on Investment (ROI), there are several other approaches related to evaluating the performance of an investment. These include:

- Internal Rate of Return (IRR) – This approach measures the rate of return on an investment that is expected to be earned over time. It is calculated by taking the total return from an investment and dividing it by the initial investment.
- Payback Period – This approach measures the time it takes for the benefits of an investment to be realized. It is calculated by taking the total cost of the investment and dividing it by the annual income generated from the investment.
- Net Present Value (NPV) – This approach measures the value of an investment in terms of its current value, taking into account any future income or costs that may arise. It is calculated by taking the total return from an investment and subtracting the total cost of the investment.
- Cost-Benefit Analysis – This approach involves analyzing all the costs and benefits associated with an investment in order to determine its overall profitability. It is calculated by taking the total return from an investment and subtracting all the costs associated with the investment.

These approaches can be used to help managers make informed decisions about whether to invest in a certain project and to compare the performance of different investments. By using a combination of these approaches, managers can gain a better understanding of the potential return and risk associated with an investment.

## Suggested literature

- Kwak, Y. H., & Ibbs, C. W. (2000).
*Calculating project management's return on investment*. Project Management Journal, 31(2), 38-47. - Johnson, T. (1970).
*Returns from investment in human capital*. The American Economic Review, 60(4), 546-560.