# Systematic sampling techniques

Systematic sampling techniques |
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**Systematic sampling** is a probability sampling technique used in research to select a subset of the population from a larger population. It is a form of random sampling that is used to ensure that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. In this type of sampling, the population is divided into equal parts, and each part is assigned a number. A random number is then selected and all other members of the population that share that number are selected for the sample. This type of sampling is used when a researcher needs to obtain a representative sample from a large population and wants to ensure the sample is random.

## Example of systematic sampling techniques

**Using a Random Number Generator**: This is one of the most common methods of systematic sampling. A random number generator is used to select a number from a predetermined range. The numbers generated are then used to select participants from a larger population. For example, a researcher may use a random number generator to select numbers from 1 to 1000. All participants with the same number will be included in the study.**Using a Calculation**: This type of systematic sampling can be used when a researcher knows the exact number of participants they want to select from a population. For example, if a researcher wants to select 500 participants from a population of 5000, they can use a calculation to determine which participants should be included in the sample. The calculation would involve dividing the number of participants (5000) by the desired sample size (500) and then multiplying the result by the sequence of numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.). This will yield the numbers (1, 10, 20, 30, etc.) that can be used to select participants from the population.**Using a Stratified Sampling**: This type of systematic sampling involves dividing the population into different strata (groups) based on certain characteristics, such as age, gender, or geographic location. Then, a random number generator is used to select participants from each stratum. For example, a researcher may divide a population of 1000 into two strata, one for people aged 18-30 and one for people aged 31-45. Then, a random number generator may be used to select 250 participants from each stratum.

## When to use systematic sampling techniques

Systematic sampling is a reliable and efficient way to select a representative sample from a large population. It is particularly useful when the researcher needs to ensure the sample is unbiased and random. Here are some of the most common applications of systematic sampling techniques:

**Surveys**: Systematic sampling is often used in survey research to ensure the sample is representative of the population.**Experiments**: Systematic sampling is also used in experiments to ensure that each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.**Data Analysis**: Systematic sampling is a useful tool for researchers who need to analyze data from a large population. By using systematic sampling, researchers can select a representative sample that accurately reflects the population.**Quality Control**: Systematic sampling is commonly used in quality control to sample a certain number of products from a larger population of products. This allows companies to ensure their products meet their quality standards.

## Types of systematic sampling techniques

Systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling technique used in research to select a subset of the population from a larger population. It is a form of random sampling that is used to ensure that each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. There are several different types of systematic sampling techniques, including:

**Simple Random Sampling**: This type of systematic sampling involves selecting a group of individuals from the population randomly, without any predetermined order or pattern.**Stratified Random Sampling**: This type of systematic sampling involves dividing the population into strata and then randomly selecting individuals from each stratum. This ensures that the sample will be more representative of the population at large.**Systematic Sampling with Replacement**: This type of systematic sampling involves selecting individuals from the population in a predetermined order, and then randomly selecting individuals from that same list repeatedly.**Cluster Sampling**: This type of systematic sampling involves dividing the population into clusters, and then randomly selecting one or more clusters to be included in the sample.**Systematic Sampling with Proportional Allocation**: This type of systematic sampling involves selecting individuals from the population in a predetermined order, and then assigning each individual to the sample proportionally according to predetermined criteria.

## Steps of systematic sampling techniques

**Step 1**: Defining the population: The first step in systematic sampling is to define the population that the researcher wants to study. This includes deciding the characteristics of the population, such as age, gender, ethnicity, etc., that will be used to select members of the population.**Step 2**: Determining the sampling interval: The next step is to determine the sampling interval, which is the number of members of the population that will be included in the sample. The sampling interval should be determined based on the size of the population and the desired sample size.**Step 3**: Selecting the starting point: The third step is to select the starting point for the sample. This is done by randomly selecting a number from within the population.**Step 4**: Selecting the sample: The fourth step is to select the sample by selecting every nth member of the population starting from the starting point. This is done until the desired sample size is reached.**Step 5**: Analyzing the data: The fifth and final step is to analyze the data collected from the sample. This includes looking at the characteristics of the sample and comparing them to the characteristics of the population. This helps the researcher to determine if the sample is representative of the population.

## Advantages of systematic sampling techniques

Systematic sampling is a popular sampling technique used in research to select a representative sample from a larger population. It is a form of random sampling that ensures each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected. This type of sampling has several advantages:

- Systematic sampling is an efficient and cost-effective way to obtain a representative sample from a large population.
- It is easy to understand and implement and can be used to create a sample that is robust and reliable.
- The selection process is random and unbiased, which helps minimize the potential for bias in the sample.
- The sample size can be easily adjusted, allowing for the collection of data from a large population.
- It can be used to study unusual phenomena or rare events that have a low probability of occurrence.

## Limitations of systematic sampling techniques

Systematic sampling is a useful technique for obtaining a representative sample from a large population, but it is not without its limitations. These include:

- It may be difficult to select a random number that is representative of the population, as the number chosen will determine the selection of the sample.
- It is difficult to decide the size of the sample and how many members should be included in it.
- Systematic sampling does not take into account any hidden factors that may influence the selection of the sample, such as age, gender or location.
- It may not be possible to obtain an accurate sample if the population is too small or if the population is too heterogeneous.
- Systematic sampling is not suitable for researching rare events or phenomena as these are unlikely to be included in the sample.

Systematic sampling is a type of probability sampling used in research to select a subset of the population from a larger population. Other approaches related to systematic sampling techniques include:

- Stratified sampling - this is a type of probability sampling technique that divides the population into different groups or strata based on characteristics such as age, gender, education, income, etc. A random sample is taken from each stratum to ensure that the sample is representative of the population.
- Cluster sampling - this type of sampling involves dividing the population into clusters or groups and then taking a random sample from each cluster. This type of sampling is useful when it is not possible to divide the population into strata or when there are a large number of clusters in the population.
- Multistage sampling - this type of sampling combines the use of both stratified and cluster sampling. A stratified sample is taken from the population and then a cluster sample is taken from each stratum.

In conclusion, systematic sampling is a form of probability sampling used to obtain a representative sample from a large population. Other related approaches include stratified sampling, cluster sampling, and multistage sampling. Each of these techniques uses different methods to ensure that the sample is representative of the population.

## Suggested literature

- Madow, W. G., & Madow, L. H. (1944).
*On the theory of systematic sampling, I*. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 15(1), 1-24. - Mostafa, S. A., & Ahmad, I. A. (2018).
*Recent developments in systematic sampling: a review*. Journal of Statistical Theory and Practice, 12(2), 290-310.