Artificial intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence is new field of science. The possibility of defining the concept very much depends on the state of research and development carried out in parallel in research centers around the world. Attempts to define AI are difficult. As difficult as defining intelligence of man - a rational being. Consequently, over several years, some sample definitions appeared:

  • Machines designed in such a way that their actions result reflects the result of the activities of human thinking [1]
  • Process of automation of certain tasks, such as making decisions and learning, that is a reflection of human intelligence [2] (R. Bellman, 1978, p. 12)
  • Field of research seeking to explain and implement intelligent behavior through the use of computational processes [3] (R. Schalkoff, 1990, p. 35)
  • Systems that think and behave like men, that is, think and behave in a rational way [4] (S. Russell, 2003, p. 16)
  • Science covering issues of algorithms, fuzzy logic, evolutionary computation, artificial neural network, artificial life and robotics. Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science, whose subject is the study of the rules governing intelligent human behavior, the creation of formal models of these behaviors, and - as a result - computer software simulating the behavior " [5] (P. Thagard, 1993, p. 11)

Examples of application

The most common artificial intelligence algorithms:

  • herd algorithm,
  • finite states automata,
  • decision trees,
  • fuzzy logic, fuzzy systems,
  • artificial neural networks,
  • evolutionary algorithms,
  • hybrid algorithms.

References

  1. [1] J. McCarthy, author of the term "Artificial Intelligence", formulated in 1955 at a conference in Dartmouth, 1955
  2. [2] R. Bellman, An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence 1978
  3. [3] Robert J. Schalkoff, Artificial intelligence: an engineering approach, 1990
  4. [4] S. Russell, P. Norvig, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, 2003
  5. [5] P. Thagard, Computational Philosophy of Science, 1993