Investment ratio
Investment ratio is a tool used in management to measure the performance of a company's investments. It is used to assess how efficiently the company is utilizing its resources and capital to generate returns. It compares the return earned from an investment to the amount of capital or resources invested in it, and can be used to evaluate the risk associated with the investment. Investment ratios can also be used to compare the performance of different investments or the performance of a single investment over time.
Example of investment ratio
- Return on Investment (ROI): The return on investment (ROI) measures the profitability of an investment. It is calculated by dividing the net gain or return of an investment by the amount of money invested. For example, if an investor puts $1,000 into a stock and earns a return of $1,200, the ROI would be 20%.
- Price to Earnings Ratio (P/E Ratio): The price to earnings ratio (P/E ratio) measures the value of a company's shares compared to its earnings. It is calculated by dividing the company's current stock price by its earnings per share. For example, if a company's current stock price is $50 and its earnings per share is $10, its P/E ratio would be 5.
- Price to Book Ratio (P/B Ratio): The price to book ratio (P/B ratio) is an indicator of a company's financial health. It is calculated by dividing the company's current stock price by its book value per share. For example, if a company's current stock price is $50 and its book value per share is $20, its P/B ratio would be 2.5.
- Dividend Yield: The dividend yield measures the return earned from a company's dividend payments. It is calculated by dividing the amount of the dividend by the current stock price. For example, if a company's current stock price is $50 and its dividend payment is $2, its dividend yield would be 4%.
- Earnings Yield: The earnings yield measures the return earned from a company's earnings. It is calculated by dividing the company's earnings per share by its current stock price. For example, if a company's current stock price is $50 and its earnings per share is $10, its earnings yield would be 20%.
Formula of investment ratio
The investment ratio formula is used to calculate the return on investment (ROI). This is a measure of how efficiently a company is utilizing its resources and capital to generate returns. The formula is as follows:
ROI = (Gain from Investment - Cost of Investment) / Cost of Investment
Where,
Gain from Investment = Total Revenue - Total Expenses
Cost of Investment = Total Expenses
The ROI is expressed as a percentage and is calculated by taking the difference between the total revenue and total expenses and dividing it by the total expenses. The higher the ROI, the more efficient the company’s utilization of resources and capital.
For example, if a company made $100,000 in revenue and had $50,000 in expenses, then the ROI would be calculated as follows:
ROI = ($100,000 - $50,000) / $50,000 = 100%
This means that the company earned a return of 100% on its investment.
When to use investment ratio
Investment ratio is a valuable tool for assessing the performance of investments and can be used in various situations. It can be used to:
- Analyze the performance of a single investment over time, helping to identify trends and potential issues.
- Compare the performance of different investments, helping to determine which ones are performing better.
- Assess the risk associated with an investment, helping to make informed decisions about whether or not to invest.
- Evaluate the efficiency of a company's resource utilization and capital investments, helping to determine if the company is making the most of its resources.
- Monitor the performance of a portfolio, helping to identify areas of weakness or strengths.
Types of investment ratio
Investment ratios are important analytical tools used to measure the performance of a company's investments. There are several types of investment ratios, which include:
- Return on Investment (ROI): This ratio measures the return earned from an investment relative to the amount of capital or resources invested in it.
- Investment Turnover Ratio: This ratio measures how efficiently the company is utilizing its resources and capital in generating returns.
- Risk-Adjusted Return on Investment (RAROI): This ratio compares the return earned from an investment to the amount of risk associated with the investment.
- Price to Earnings Ratio (P/E): This ratio is used to evaluate the current stock price of a company relative to its earnings.
- Price to Book Ratio (P/B): This ratio measures the value of a company's assets relative to its stock price.
- Debt to Equity Ratio (D/E): This ratio measures the level of leverage used by a company in financing its operations.
- Price to Cash Flow Ratio (P/CF): This ratio measures the cash flow generated by an investment relative to its price.
Advantages of investment ratio
Investment ratios provide investors and management with a useful tool to measure the performance of investments. The main advantages of investment ratios are:
- They can provide an objective measure of the return on investment, taking into account all the risks associated with the investment.
- Investment ratios are relatively easy to calculate and can be used to compare the performance of different investments.
- Investment ratios can be used to compare the performance of an investment over time, allowing investors to identify any changes in the return on their investments.
- Investment ratios can also be used to benchmark the performance of a company's investments against similar investments in the market.
- Investment ratios can help investors to identify potential problems or opportunities in their investments and provide insights into how to better manage their investments.
Limitations of investment ratio
Investment ratios can be a useful tool for measuring performance, but there are some limitations that should be taken into account. These include:
- Investment ratios only measure performance over a given period of time and may not be indicative of future performance.
- Investment ratios are based on historical data and do not take into account future events or changes in market conditions.
- Investment ratios do not account for the risk associated with the investment and do not provide information on the potential reward.
- Investment ratios may not provide an accurate representation of the true value of an investment, as they only measure the performance of the investment over a certain period of time.
- Investment ratios can be manipulated or misinterpreted, leading to inaccurate conclusions.
- Investment ratios are not a substitute for a comprehensive understanding of the market and the investments being evaluated.
Investment ratio is an important tool used in management to measure the performance of a company's investments. Other approaches related to investment ratio include:
- Return on Investment (ROI): This is a measure of the return earned from a particular investment compared to the amount of capital invested. It can be used to assess the risk associated with the investment and compare the performance of different investments over time.
- Payback period: This is a measure of the time it takes for an investment to generate returns. It is used to assess the viability of an investment, as well as its profitability.
- Internal rate of return (IRR): This is a measure of the profitability of an investment, expressed as a percentage. It is used to compare the performance of different investments and to assess the risk associated with the investment.
- Cost-benefit analysis: This is a technique used to assess the cost and benefit of an investment. It compares the cost of an investment to the expected benefits and is used to determine whether an investment is worthwhile.
In summary, investment ratios are important tools used in management to measure the performance of a company's investments. Other approaches related to investment ratio include return on investment (ROI), payback period, internal rate of return (IRR), and cost-benefit analysis. These measures can be used to assess the risk associated with an investment, compare the performance of different investments, and determine whether an investment is worthwhile.
Investment ratio — recommended articles |
Net asset value per share — Return on equity (ROE) — Unlevered beta — Earnings per share — Earnings Multiplier — Long term investment balance sheet — Market value ratios — Cumulative abnormal returns — Accounting ratios |
References
- Rutkowska-Ziarko, A. (2015). The influence of profitability ratios and company size on profitability and investment risk in the capital market. Folia Oeconomica Stetinensia, 15(1), 151-161.