Life cycle model
Life Cycle Model is a project management approach which outlines the stages of a project from the beginning to end. It is used to guide the planning and execution of projects, and it defines the phases, activities and tasks that need to be completed in order for the project to be successful. It includes the initiation, planning, execution, monitoring, controlling and closing of the project, and it outlines the tasks that are necessary at each phase. Life Cycle Model is an important tool for managing projects and improving the chances of success.
Example of life cycle model
- Project Initiation: The project initiation phase is the beginning of a project and involves setting goals and objectives, obtaining resources, and creating a project plan. During this phase, the project manager will formulate the project scope, budget, and timeline.
- Project Planning: The project planning phase is the next step in the project life cycle. This phase involves analyzing the project requirements and developing a plan to meet those requirements. This includes identifying risks, scheduling tasks, and assigning resources.
- Project Execution: The project execution phase is when the project plan is put into action. In this phase, the project team will begin executing the tasks according to the project plan. This includes monitoring progress, making adjustments, and reporting progress to stakeholders.
- Project Monitoring and Controlling: The project monitoring and controlling phase is when the project is being monitored and controlled to ensure that it is progressing according to plan. This includes tracking progress, managing risks, and making necessary changes to the project plan.
- Project Closure: The project closure phase is the final phase of the project life cycle. During this phase, the project is evaluated to make sure that all objectives were met and that the project was successful. This phase also involves creating a project report and archiving all project documents.
Best practices of life cycle model
- Develop a Clear Project Plan: When creating a life cycle model, it is important to develop a detailed project plan that includes objectives, timeline, and budget. This plan should be shared with all stakeholders to ensure everyone is on the same page and aware of their responsibilities.
- Define Project Roles and Responsibilities: It is essential to clearly define roles and responsibilities for each participant in the life cycle model. This ensures that people have the tools and resources they need to complete their tasks and that everyone is working together efficiently.
- Establish Performance Metrics: Performance metrics should be established throughout the life cycle model in order to track progress and ensure that objectives are being met. This can include items such as budget, timelines, and customer satisfaction.
- Monitor and Control Project Progress: It is important to monitor and control progress throughout the life cycle model. This includes tracking progress against the project plan, budget, and timeline. Regular check-ins with stakeholders can help ensure that the project is on track.
- Communicate Regularly: Communication is key for any project, and it is important to establish a communication plan for the life cycle model. This includes setting up regular meetings to update stakeholders on the project’s progress, as well as providing updates via email or other communication tools.
- Implement Change Management: Change management is essential when it comes to life cycle models, as changes are inevitable. It is important to have a process in place to handle changes, including evaluating the impact of the change and ensuring that stakeholders are informed.
- Perform Quality Assurance: Quality assurance is important for any project, as it helps to ensure that the project is meeting its goals and objectives. This can include testing the product or service before it is released to the public.
- Conduct Final Reviews: Conducting final reviews at the end of the life cycle model can help ensure that the project was completed according to plan. This can include finalizing closure documents and evaluating the overall success of the project.
When to use life cycle model
Life Cycle Model is a useful tool for planning, executing, and controlling a project. It can be used in a variety of circumstances, such as:
- When starting a new project: Life Cycle Model can help to ensure that all tasks are accounted for and that the project is managed in an efficient manner.
- When managing a complex, multi-phase project: The use of a Life Cycle Model can ensure that all tasks are completed in the correct sequence, and that all stakeholders are kept informed of progress.
- When dealing with multiple teams: The use of a Life Cycle Model can help to ensure that each team is working towards the same goal, and that all teams are kept updated on the project’s progress.
- When dealing with multiple stakeholders: The use of a Life Cycle Model can help to keep stakeholders informed and involved, and can ensure that their needs are met.
- When dealing with a timeline: The use of a Life Cycle Model can help to ensure that the project is completed within a set timeframe, and that all tasks are completed on time.
Types of life cycle model
- Waterfall Model: The Waterfall Model is a traditional life cycle model that sequentially passes through the phases of initiation, planning, design, development, testing, implementation and closure. The various stages in this model are completed in a linear fashion, with each phase built upon the previous one.
- Agile Model: The Agile Model is a newer approach to project management, which emphasizes flexibility and continuous improvement. It involves iterative cycles of development, testing and implementation, with each cycle making improvements to the project.
- Iterative Model: The Iterative Model follows a cyclical pattern which focuses on the development of a project, but allows for adjustments and changes as the project progresses. This model allows for quick feedback and adaptation to changes in requirements and technology.
- Spiral Model: The Spiral Model is a combination of the Waterfall and Iterative models. It includes a series of iterations, each of which passes through the various project stages, such as planning, design, testing and implementation. The model allows for rapid prototyping, where the project team can learn and adjust to changes as they occur.
- V-Model: The V-Model is a development life cycle model which follows a "V" shape, with each phase of the project passing through the steps of initiation, planning, design, development, testing, implementation and closure. This model allows for testing to be carried out in parallel with the development process, so that any errors can be identified and fixed at an early stage.
Advantages of life cycle model
Life Cycle Model is an important tool for project management, as it outlines the stages of a project from the beginning to end. It provides a logical, structured approach to planning, execution, monitoring and closing of projects, and it is an essential tool for improving the chances of success. The following are some advantages of using the Life Cycle Model:
- It helps to identify potential risks and issues at the early stages of the project, so that they can be addressed and managed before they become insurmountable obstacles.
- It provides a clear and structured methodology for breaking down a project into manageable components.
- It helps to ensure that all stakeholders in the project are on the same page, as they all understand the expected workflow, timelines and objectives.
- It helps to ensure that the project does not exceed its budget or timeline, as the project is broken down into smaller tasks and activities.
- It helps to ensure that all tasks and activities are completed in an efficient and timely manner, as project activities are tracked throughout the process.
Limitations of life cycle model
One of the main limitations of the Life Cycle Model is that it does not take into account the complexities of real-world projects. The model may not be suitable for larger and more complex projects, as it focuses on the linear progression of a project and ignores the potential for unexpected changes and complexities. Additionally, the model does not provide guidance on how to resolve conflicts or handle unforeseen problems that may arise during the project. It also does not provide a comprehensive view of the project and may not be suitable for projects that require multiple stakeholders. Lastly, the model may not be suitable for projects which require rapid development, as it is focused on following a linear path to completion. *It does not take into account the complexities of real-world projects *It does not provide guidance on how to resolve conflicts or handle unforeseen problems *It does not provide a comprehensive view of the project *It may not be suitable for projects which require rapid development
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- Westland, J. (2007). The project management life cycle: A complete step-by-step methodology for initiating planning executing and closing the project. Kogan Page Publishers.