Reism is a philosophical system that was developed by the German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in the late 17th century. It is based on the notion that all of reality is composed of simple substances that are called monads. These monads have no spatial or temporal parts, but instead interact with one another to form the physical world. Reism is different from other philosophical systems in that it places a strong emphasis on the nature of perception and the role of the monads in perceiving the world.
Reism is based on the following five principles:
- Principle of Sufficient Reason: This principle states that for every true statement, there must be an explanation as to why it is true.
- Principle of the Identity of Indiscernibles: This principle states that two objects that are indiscernible from one another must be identical.
- Principle of Pre-Established Harmony: This principle states that the behavior of the monads is determined by a pre-established harmony.
- Principle of Continuity: This principle states that the monads are connected by a continuum, which allows for the perception of the physical world.
- Principle of Plenitude: This principle states that the world is full of monads, which interact in an orderly manner to produce the physical world.
Example of Reism
An example of Reism can be found in the concept of a human soul. According to Reism, a human soul is composed of monads, which interact with one another and with the physical world to create a person's mind and body. The monads interact in an orderly manner, allowing for the perception of the physical world and the development of knowledge and thought. This example of Reism demonstrates how the monads interact to create the physical world, and how the principles of Reism can be applied to understanding the nature of perception.
When to use Reism
Reism can be used to explain various aspects of the physical world, such as the perception of objects and the relationship between the monads. Additionally, Reism can be used to explain the nature of causality and the cause-and-effect relationship between events. Furthermore, Reism can be used to explain the nature of free will and how it is related to the behavior of the monads. Finally, Reism can also be used to explain the nature of determinism and how it is related to the behavior of the monads. In summary, Reism is a useful philosophical system for understanding the physical world and its relationship to the monads.
Types of Reism
Reism can be divided into two distinct branches, metaphysical and epistemological.
- Metaphysical Reism: This branch of Reism focuses on the nature of the monads and how they interact in order to form the physical world. It emphasizes the principles of sufficient reason, identity of indiscernibles, and plenitude.
- Epistemological Reism: This branch of Reism focuses on the nature of perception and how it relates to the monads. It emphasizes the principles of pre-established harmony and continuity.
Advantages of Reism
Reism has a number of advantages over other philosophical systems:
- It is based on a unified set of principles that provide a logical framework for understanding the world.
- The principles are simple and easy to understand, making it accessible to a wide range of people.
- It provides a comprehensive explanation for the nature of perception and the role of the monads in perceiving the world.
- It is an objective system of thought, in which the truth of a statement is not dependent on the opinion of any particular person.
Limitations of Reism
Reism is not without its limitations. First, it cannot explain how consciousness arises from the monads. Second, because the monads lack spatial and temporal parts, it is difficult to explain the dynamics of change in the physical world. Finally, because the monads are not physical entities, it is difficult to explain how they interact with one another and with the physical world.
In addition to Reism, there are several other philosophical systems that have similar ideas to those of Leibniz. These include:
- Platonism: Platonism is a philosophical system that posits that there are abstract objects such as numbers, forms, and ideas that exist in a realm beyond the physical world.
- Idealism: Idealism is a philosophical system that posits that reality is composed of ideas and mental states rather than physical objects.
- Pantheism: Pantheism is a philosophical system that posits that God is identical to the universe and that all of reality is part of a single divine being.
- Materialism: Materialism is a philosophical system that posits that reality is composed of physical matter and energy and that all phenomena can be explained in terms of material causes.
Overall, Reism is related to a number of other philosophical systems, including Platonism, Idealism, Pantheism, and Materialism. These systems share some of the same ideas as Reism, such as the notion that reality is composed of simple substances and that the behavior of these substances is determined by pre-established harmony.
- Woleński, J. (2004). Reism.
- Smith, B. (1990). On the phases of reism. Kotarbiński: Logic, Semantics and Ontology, 137-183.