Service quality dimensions
|Service quality dimensions|
Service quality dimensions are the criteria upon which customers evaluate how a service meets or exceeds their expectations. These dimensions include aspects such as reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, tangibles, and understandability. Reliability is the ability of a service to be delivered consistently and accurately each time. Responsiveness is the willingness of the service provider to help customers promptly. Assurance is the trustworthiness and confidence of the service provider. Empathy is the ability of the service provider to show understanding and care towards the customer. Tangibles are the physical evidence of the service, such as buildings, equipment, and personnel appearance. Understandability is the ability to understand and explain the service in terms that customers can comprehend.
Use of service quality dimensions
Service quality dimensions can be used to assess the level of customer satisfaction with a service. The dimensions can also be used to measure the effectiveness of a service provider in meeting customer needs. These dimensions can be used to identify areas of improvement and areas where customer service can be improved. Additionally, they can be used to compare the performance of different service providers and inform customer service strategies.
- Reliability: A large fast-food chain consistently delivering fresh, hot food orders on-time and with accurate orders.
- Responsiveness: An online customer service representative responding promptly and professionally to customer inquiries and complaints.
- Assurance: A customer service representative providing customers with clear, accurate, and reliable information about a product or service.
- Empathy: A hotel front desk staff member treating customers with respect and understanding when they are having a difficult time.
- Tangibles: A hospital providing patients with a clean, comfortable, and safe environment.
- Understandability: An airline providing clear and simple instructions on how to check-in and board the plane.
Formula of service quality
The SERVQUAL model is a commonly used formula for measuring service quality dimensions. SERVQUAL is an acronym that stands for the five dimensions of service quality: Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness. The model was developed in 1988 by researchers Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry and is still used today to evaluate the quality of a service.
The formula for the SERVQUAL model is as follows:
SQ = Perceived Service Quality – Expected Service Quality
Where SQ is Service Quality, Perceived Service Quality is equal to the average of the ratings for each of the five dimensions of service quality, and Expected Service Quality is equal to the average of the target or ideal ratings for each dimension of service quality.
The formula for calculating the Perceived Service Quality is:
Perceived Service Quality = (Reliability + Assurance + Tangibles + Empathy + Responsiveness) / 5
Where Reliability, Assurance, Tangibles, Empathy, and Responsiveness are the ratings given by customers for each of the five service quality dimensions.
The formula for calculating the Expected Service Quality is:
Expected Service Quality = (Target Reliability + Target Assurance + Target Tangibles + Target Empathy + Target Responsiveness) / 5
Where Target Reliability, Target Assurance, Target Tangibles, Target Empathy, and Target Responsiveness are the target or ideal ratings for each of the five service quality dimensions.
Limitations of service quality dimensions
The limitations of service quality dimensions include:
- Subjectivity: Service quality dimensions are subjective and can be difficult to measure objectively. Different customers may have different expectations and interpretations of the same service.
- Contextual Variation: Different services may require different quality dimensions depending on the specific context.
- Timeliness: The efficacy of service quality dimensions may vary over time and may require frequent updates to remain relevant.
- Limited Focus: Service quality dimensions may be limited to specific aspects of a service and may not capture the full customer experience.
- Cost: Collecting, analyzing, and implementing service quality dimensions can be costly and may require additional investments.
In addition to the six service quality dimensions mentioned above, there are other approaches related to service quality. These include:
- The SERVQUAL model, which assesses service quality by looking at five dimensions: reliability, assurance, tangibles, empathy, and responsiveness.
- The Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI), which measures customer satisfaction with a service over time.
- The Net Promoter Score (NPS), which measures customer loyalty by asking customers to rate a service experience on a scale of 1 to 10.
- The Quality Function Deployment (QFD), which uses customer feedback to identify and prioritize service quality features.
In summary, there are several approaches to measuring service quality, including the SERVQUAL model, the Customer Satisfaction Index, the Net Promoter Score, and the Quality Function Deployment. These approaches all provide different ways to gain insights into how customers perceive the service quality of a company.
- Kang, G. D., & James, J. (2004). Service quality dimensions: an examination of Grönroos’s service quality model. Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, 14(4), 266-277.