Subrogation is „the substitution of another person in the place of a creditor, so that the person in whose favor it is exercised succeeds to the rights of the creditor in relation to the debt. The substitute is put in all respects in the place of the party to whose rights he is subrogated” .
It is a doctrine first and foremost of equity jurisprudence despite the fact that its principles have usually and in recent years with rising periodicity, been implemented in courts of common law, particularly in the States, where equitable remedies are managed through the types of law .
Who can be subrogated
The Restatement of the Law of Security, states that, when the responsibility of principal to the lender is completely satisfied, the conviction, to the extent that it has provided to that contentment, is subrogated to, :
- the rights of the lender opposing the principal
- interest of the lender in security whereupon the lender has no further interest
- the rights of the lender opposing person different than the principal whose oversight made responsible to the lender for the same neglect
- the rights of the lender opposing co- sureties to extent of donation
Types of subrogation
The law distinguishes three subrogation's types :
- Contractual subrogation( also known as „conventional subrogation”) is based on the agreement between the participants, for example subrogation language included in insurance policy. The participants agree to determine, renounce or limit subrogation rights. That kind of operation on the legal right of subrogation is in the middle of risk transfer. Because subrogation occurs naturally by law after compensation by subrogee, subrogation may be "changed or waived" by agreement.
- Equitable subrogation also known as „legal subrogation” occurs by operation of law from "fairness", where someone has been obligated to pay the liability which should have been compensated by another. This type stops the unearned enhancement of one participant at the cost of another by establishing something much like a constructive trust on behalf of the subrogee out of entire legal rights owned by the subrogor.
- Statutory subrogation contains employees’ remuneration, hospital lien laws, Medicare and so on. Subrogation rights are provided by state and federal legislation. Each state has legislated system of employees’ compensation and each of them provides workers’ remuneration carriers or government funds particular and diversified subrogation rights.
- Sheldon H. N., (2000), s. 1
- Sheldon H. N., (2000), s. 1
- American Bar Association. Tort and Insurance Practice Section, (1991), s. 4
- American Law Institute, (1941), s. 383
- Wickert G. L., (2012), s. 1-5. 1-6
- American Bar Association. Tort and Insurance Practice Section, (1991), Subrogation Rights of the Contract Bond Surety: Drawn from Papers Presented at TIPS Annual Meeting, August 1990, Chicago, Illinois, American Bar Association, USA
- American Law Institute, (1941), Restatement of the Law of Security, American Law Institute Publishers
- Hudson A., (2014), Equity and Trusts, Cavendish Publishing,
- Sheldon H. N., (2000), The Law of Subrogation, Beard Books, USA
- Wickert G. L., (2012), Automobile Insurance Subrogation: In All 50 States, Juris Publishing, USA
- Wickert G. L., (2012), Workers' Compensation Subrogation In All 50 States - Fifth Edition, Juris Publishing, USA
Author: Faustyna Nowicka