# Corruption perception index

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The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) is an index created by Transparency International which measures the perceived level of public sector corruption in the form of the abuse of public power for private gain. It is determined by surveying business people and experts in countries around the world. The CPI score for a country is an aggregate measure of different types of corruption, such as bribery, nepotism, fraud, and embezzlement. The CPI score ranges from 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean). The index is used to measure public sector corruption in countries and to compare corruption levels among them. It is also used to assess the effectiveness of anti-corruption policies and initiatives.

## Formula of corruption perception index

The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) is calculated using a formula that takes into account the perceived levels of corruption in the public sector of a country. The formula is as follows:

CPI Score = $$\frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n} x_i}{n}$$

Where x_i is the perceived level of corruption in each of the n countries surveyed and n is the total number of countries surveyed. The CPI score is then calculated by taking the average of the perceived corruption levels of all the countries surveyed.

In addition to the corruption perception index formula, Transparency International also uses a weighting system to adjust the CPI score to account for any differences in the size and population of the countries surveyed. This weighting system is as follows:

Weighted CPI Score = $$\frac{1}{N}\sum_{i=1}^N \frac{x_i}{w_i}$$

Where $$x_i$$ is the perceived level of corruption in each of the N countries surveyed, $$w_i$$ is the weighting factor for each country, and N is the total number of countries surveyed. The weighting factor is determined by taking the population of the country and dividing it by the total population of all the countries surveyed. This weighting system ensures that countries with larger populations are given more weight in the CPI score.

The CPI score is then calculated by taking the average of the weighted corruption levels of all the countries surveyed. This formula is used to create an overall score that can be compared across countries, and to assess the effectiveness of anti-corruption policies and initiatives.

## When to use corruption perception index

The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) can be used in a variety of contexts to measure the level of public sector corruption in a given country. It can be used:

• To measure levels of public sector corruption in countries around the world and compare them.
• To assess the effectiveness of anti-corruption policies and initiatives.
• To identify areas of corruption within a given country or region and assess the necessary actions to decrease it.
• To track changes in corruption levels over time and evaluate the effectiveness of anti-corruption efforts.
• To inform public policy decisions and allocate resources to address corruption issues.
• To benchmark countries and inform international organizations such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund and United Nations on the levels of corruption in different countries.

## Types of corruption

The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) is an index created by Transparency International which measures the perceived level of public sector corruption in the form of the abuse of public power for private gain. It is determined by surveying business people and experts in countries around the world. The CPI score for a country is an aggregate measure of different types of corruption, such as:

• Bribery: This involves the offering or receiving of money or other incentives in exchange for influence or a favor.
• Nepotism: This is the practice of giving jobs or other advantages to family members or close friends without regard to their qualifications or merit.
• Fraud: This involves the misuse of funds or resources for personal gain or to benefit others.
• Embezzlement: This involves the misappropriation or theft of public funds or assets.

## Advantages of corruption perception index

The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) provides a number of advantages, including:

• An objective measure of corruption levels in different countries: The CPI provides an objective measure of public sector corruption in countries by surveying business people and experts. This helps to compare corruption levels among countries.
• A tool to assess the effectiveness of anti-corruption policies and initiatives: The CPI score provides an indication of the effectiveness of anti-corruption policies and initiatives.
• A measure of progress: The CPI score can be used to measure progress in countries in terms of the reduction of corruption.
• An early warning system: The CPI score can be used as an early warning system, alerting governments and stakeholders to the potential for corruption.

## Limitations of corruption perception index

The Corruption Perception Index (CPI) is an index created by Transparency International which measures the perceived level of public sector corruption in the form of the abuse of public power for private gain. Although it is a useful tool for measuring and comparing corruption levels in different countries, there are some limitations to it. The following are some of the limitations of the CPI:

• The CPI does not measure all types of corruption. It primarily focuses on bribery, nepotism, fraud, and embezzlement, but does not take into account other forms of corruption such as patronage, cronyism, and extortion.
• The CPI only measures perceived levels of corruption, not actual levels. This means that the index may not accurately reflect the true level of corruption in a country.
• The CPI is based on surveys and interviews with business people and experts, which may not necessarily reflect the views of the general public.
• The CPI does not take into account other factors that can affect corruption, such as political and economic instability.
• The CPI is only a snapshot of the current situation and does not take into account long-term trends or provide a comprehensive picture of a country’s corruption levels.
• The CPI is based on subjective assessments and is therefore subject to bias.

## Other approaches related to corruption perception index

One approach related to the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) is the Global Corruption Barometer (GCB). This index is produced by Transparency International and surveys people from different countries on their experience of bribery and other forms of corruption. The GCB provides a measure of people’s personal experiences of bribery and other forms of corruption as well as their perceptions of the levels of corruption in their country. Other approaches related to corruption perception include:

• The World Bank's Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI) which measure different aspects of governance, including rule of law, control of corruption, and regulatory quality.
• The World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) which measures the economic environment of countries and their business environment.
• The International Anti-corruption Conference’s (IACC) Global Corruption Report which is an annual report that examines different aspects of corruption around the world.

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