Acquisition planning is the process of identifying and documenting the steps necessary to acquire goods or services. This includes determining the requirements for the goods or services, identifying potential suppliers, evaluating proposals, and selecting a supplier. The goal of acquisition planning is to ensure that the goods or services acquired meet the needs of the organization and are acquired in a cost-effective and efficient manner.
Acquisition planning steps
The steps in the acquisition planning process typically include:
- Define the requirement: Identify the need for goods or services, including the specifications and performance requirements.
- Market research: Identify potential suppliers and gather information about their capabilities, capacity, and past performance.
- Develop a procurement strategy: Determine the best approach for acquiring the goods or services, such as competitive bidding, sole source, or a request for proposal.
- Prepare the procurement document: Create the document that will be used to solicit proposals or bids from suppliers, such as a request for proposal (RFP) or invitation for bid (IFB).
- Conduct the procurement: Distribute the procurement document to potential suppliers, receive and evaluate proposals or bids, and select a supplier.
- Contract administration: Negotiate and execute a contract with the selected supplier, and manage the contract to ensure that the goods or services are delivered on time and meet the requirements.
- Closeout and evaluation: Close out the contract and evaluate the performance of the supplier and the acquisition process.
Acquisition planning risks
Acquisition planning can be a complex process, and there are several risks that organizations may face during the process. Some of these risks include:
- Unclear requirements: If the requirements for the goods or services are not clearly defined, it can lead to misunderstandings and disputes with suppliers.
- Limited competition: Limited competition can lead to higher prices and reduced supplier performance, as well as lack of innovation.
- Lack of market research: Without proper market research, organizations may not have a good understanding of the capabilities and capacity of potential suppliers.
- Inadequate procurement strategy: An inadequate procurement strategy can lead to delays, increased costs, and poor supplier performance.
- Contracting with inadequate suppliers: Organizations may select a supplier that does not have the necessary capabilities or capacity to perform the work, leading to delays and poor quality.
- Inadequate contract administration: Poor contract administration can lead to disputes, delays, and poor supplier performance.
- Inadequate evaluation and closeout: Without proper evaluation and closeout, organizations may not be able to identify and correct problems with the acquisition process, leading to repetition of the same issues.
To mitigate these risks, organizations should have a well-structured and robust acquisition process with clear steps and guidelines. They should also have a risk management plan in place to identify and address potential risks early on.
How uncertainty impacts acquisition planning?
Uncertainty can have a significant impact on the acquisition planning process. Some of the ways in which uncertainty can impact the process include:
- Requirements: Uncertainty surrounding the requirements for goods or services can lead to delays in the acquisition process as well as increased costs, as suppliers may need to revise proposals multiple times.
- Market conditions: Uncertainty in the market can make it difficult for organizations to identify potential suppliers or to evaluate the capabilities of suppliers.
- Budget constraints: Uncertainty in budgeting can make it difficult for organizations to plan for and fund the acquisition of goods or services.
- Schedule: Uncertainty in schedules can cause delays in the acquisition process, as well as delays in the delivery of goods or services.
- Political and regulatory environment: Uncertainty in the political and regulatory environment can affect the acquisition process, as new laws or regulations may be implemented that impact the process.
- Risk management: Uncertainty can make it difficult for organizations to identify and manage risks associated with the acquisition process.
To mitigate the impact of uncertainty on the acquisition process, organizations should have a flexible and adaptable acquisition process that can adjust to changing conditions. They should also have a robust risk management plan in place to identify and address potential risks early on. Additionally, they should have a good communication and coordination with stakeholders, suppliers and other related parties to keep track of the changing conditions and adjust the plans accordingly.
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- Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L., Mora-Valentín, E. M., & Ortiz-de-Urbina-Criado, M. (2019). Human resource management in merger and acquisition planning. Journal of Organizational Change Management.
- Zhang, G., Shi, J., Chaudhry, S. S., & Li, X. (2019). Multi-period multi-product acquisition planning with uncertain demands and supplier quantity discounts. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 132, 117-140.
- Moallemi, E. A., Elsawah, S., Turan, H. H., & Ryan, M. J. (2018, December). Multi-objective decision making in multi-period acquisition planning under deep uncertainty. In 2018 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC) (pp. 1334-1345). IEEE.