Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are systems that integrate physical and cyber components to control and monitor the physical processes of a system. These systems use sensors and actuators to collect data from the physical world and then use this data to control the behavior of the system.
CPS have many different applications, but some common examples include:
- Industrial control systems (ICS) used to control and monitor industrial processes such as manufacturing, power generation, and oil and gas production
- Medical devices such as pacemakers and implantable defibrillators
- Automotive systems such as advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and autonomous vehicles
- Smart buildings and smart cities which use sensors, actuators, and other devices to control and monitor building systems such as lighting, heating, and security systems
- Robotics systems which use sensors, actuators, and other devices to control and monitor the behavior of robots
CPS are characterized by their ability to sense, actuate, process, and communicate, and their ability to adapt to the physical environment. They are also characterized by the integration of cyber and physical components, and the ability to use data from the physical world to control the behavior of the system.
CPS can bring significant benefits to industries such as improved efficiency, reliability, and safety, and the ability to make real-time decisions. However, they also bring new security challenges as they are connected to the internet and can be vulnerable to cyber attacks that can have physical consequences. Therefore, securing CPS is of paramount importance to protect against cyber threats and ensure the safety and reliability of the systems.
- Lv, Z., Chen, D., Lou, R., & Alazab, A. (2021). Artificial intelligence for securing industrial-based cyber–physical systems. Future generation computer systems, 117, 291-298