Internet

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Internet – origins of the name can be found in two different words – interconnection and network, combined together as inter-network. The neologism was later shortened into simple “internet”.

Internet is a global, worldwide computer network, often proclaimed as “network of the networks”. In IT terminology Internet is being referred as space of IP addresses, assigned to particular hosts and servers connected by network devices like NIC, modems, hubs and access-points, communicating with each other using transmission control protocol/ internet protocol (TCP/IP). Origins Internet was invented in the United States of America for the science and academic environment. It was made as an expansion of the ARPANet network, later provided to other scientific facilities and companies. Internet became widely accessible for worldwide individual users in the end of 90’s. Also, the RAND Corporation had it’s influence in the early beginnings of Internet. Their research for the ways of communication between commanders in times of nuclear war, was the first step to create an idea of connecting networks into one, which was proclaimed In 1973 by R.Kahn and V.Cerf, and later expanded by ARPANet chief director, Charles Herzfeld.

Characteristics

Internet can be seen by different users in different way.

  • It’s the way to communicate with family and friends located in different parts of the world.
  • Is the ocean of resources, that wait for exploitation
  • Is the ultimate source of commercial possibilities
  • Is the world biggest library of books and archives, that can be accessed by anyone, anytime.
  • Is the technology of the future, that will help people live better lives.
  • Is the community of computers, which can communicate with each other using fiber optic cables.

There are many more examples, but none of the existing definitions is 100% correct and can be referred to Internet as a whole. Currently the Internet works under an agreement of variety of companies, that host and administrate computer networks. Internet Architecture Board is responsible for internet protocols management. Internet Network Information System is responsible for internet addresses and naming of public/non-public internet domains.

Internet consist of a few levels. The first, and main level is so called Backbone network. The routers and modems are connected to the backbone network. The third level contains local internet providers that run and administrate routers and modems connected to backbone network. Last level is represented by individuals.

References

  • G.H.Cady, P. McGregor Internet od podstaw do mistrzostwa, pub. Komputerowa Oficyna wydawnicza "HELP", Warszawa 1996, p. 30-31
  • W. Gogołek Technologie Informacyjne Mediów, pub. Oficyna Wydawnicza ASPRA-JR, Warszawa 2006, p. 51
  • J. Wojnowski Wielka Encyklopedia PWN, Iglesias - Joanna d'Arc, pub, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2002, p. 193

Author: Piotr Śmietana