Ecology is the science that studies the relationships between organisms and the environment. Moreover, ecology investigates the connections between organisms and their relations to each other. As the first one, German biologist and evolutionist, Ernst Haeckel introduced the term "ecology" in 1869. Currently, the terms "ecology" and "organic" are very popular, although in most cases they have quite general and unspecified sense, relating mainly to environmental protection.
Ecology studies ecosystems (the natural units consisting: plants, animals and micro-organisms, which functioning together in an specific area), using the achievements of biology and other sciences connected with environment. The basic theoretical principle of ecology is the thesis about the mutual connection of all systems in the nature, through the exchange processes of matter and energy.
Initially, ecology was focused on studying the existence conditions of living organisms. In the mid-twentieth century, the scope of research was expanded and it included human - creating the trend "human ecology". In the 70th years the "social ecology" was started, including natural population as a whole in studies.
- - Knowledge about the mechanisms of self-regulation,
- - Theoretical rationale, which enable to anticipate the negative human effects on nature,
- - Strategies for the protection and support of the environment.
- Scheffer, M., Westley, F., Brock, W. A., & Holmgren, M. (2001). LINKING THEORIES FROM ECOLOGY, ECONOMY, AND SOCIOLOGY. Panarchy: Understanding transformations in human and natural systems, 195.
Author: Anna Pulchny