Forms of advertising
|Forms of advertising|
The marketing department can be created according to the criterion:
It is the most frequently used form of marketing organization, which consists in the division of marketing activities by groups of functions including sales, advertising, sales promotion, marketing research, product planning, etc.
- Administrative simplicity
- Structure transparency
- Difficult use of this organizational form in companies with a large variety of products and markets
- Problems related to cooperation between individual organizational units.
Product organizational structure
In a company that produces various products, the organizational structure should be oriented according to products or product groups. This system does not replace the functional form, but is another level of management in which product managerial positions are created for individual products. Their task is, among others, to formulate a product strategy, prepare an annual marketing plan, cooperate with advertising agencies, collect information about product sales, customer attitude, make decisions regarding product improvements.
- Quick response and adaptation to the market situation
- The product manager focuses on a given product and develops an appropriate marketing mix.
- Decisions on products are made faster and more accurately.
- Often, the system turns out to be too expensive, as the number of managers and other employees, such as advertising specialists, market research and promotion, increases with the number of products.
- Product managers become specialists in the field of their product, but their cooperation with other departments is bad
- It is becoming difficult to develop a national strategy
It is used in companies with a very large spatial range. Marketing activities are combined according to the areas of the company's operations.
- Particularly useful form in companies operating in regions with different characteristics.
- It allows taking into account the specificity of individual areas.
- Dispersion of resources and professional potential
Organization organized by markets
Useful in a company that offers its products in many markets. Clients are clearly divided into groups, which is why the company distributes its marketing activities to separate segments of the market. Market managers have similar tasks to product managers, eg preparing annual plans for their markets.
- Focusing on the needs of different customer groups, and adapting to the specifics of each of them.
- High costs of marketing cells
- Not always justified use of this structure, as the differences between segments may be insignificant.
A combination of organizational structures designed for companies producing different products that they offer in many markets. It contains the advantages and disadvantages of previous structures. In addition, it is expensive and favors the emergence of conflicts.
Organization of the department of territorial marketing
The construction of territorial marketing tools
The marketing structure should be internally integrated and have a high level of efficiency and effectiveness. The optimum composition of the Marketing mix concept instruments determines the efficiency of achieving the set goals. In the classic approach, the set of marketing tools is:
The above instruments can be adapted, changed, modified and controlled. In practice, territorial marketing tools should consider:
- territorial offer, characterized by: organic parameters (culture, history, internal organization), symbolic, geographical and economic features.
- ways to make offers available to interested groups and institutions,
- circumstances and ways of making the territorial product available, specifying the procedures, time, places and conditions of servicing the customers,
- techniques, forms and means of communication between the individual and the environment, which shapes its marketing image.
To avoid encountering restrictions when using marketing instruments in a territorial unit, it is recommended to enrich marketing instruments with another element, ie people. This element should become a means of coordination and a link between the resulting instruments. A geographic marketing mix can be distinguished, distinguished for the needs of city marketing, whose instrument should be based on three main strategies:
- promotional strategy - publicity and advertising,
- strategy based on events - festivals and events,
- landscape strategy - marking places and designing space.
Criteria for effective and effective application of marketing in territorial units.
To determine the level and assessment of the effectiveness of marketing activities implemented, it is necessary to control them and monitor the emerging opportunities and limitations. These actions may lead to finding even better and more effective solutions. The two basic types of assessing the suitability and impact of the use of marketing are:
- effectiveness - the degree of achieving various objectives in the region,
- efficiency - the relation of the results achieved in relation to the expenditures that have been incurred for their implementation.
The appointment of the above types of assessments requires the specification of indicators and measures that will allow to reflect the level of the above-mentioned evaluation criteria and justify the need to introduce territorial marketing.
- Belch, G. E., & Belch, M. A. (2004). Advertising and promotion: An integrated marketing communications perspective 6th. New York: NY: McGraw-Hill.
- Hackley, C., & Hackley, R. A. (2017). Advertising and promotion. Sage.
- Moodie, C., & Hastings, G. (2010). Tobacco packaging as promotion.