Funding operations is an action designed to change the terms of a loan/loan to another, usually more favourable, loan/borrower (e.g. extending the term of the loan, lowering the interest rate) or to exchange the debt for another financial instrument/benefit (S. Albertijn, et all., 2011, pp. 2-4). Debt conversion can concern both the debt of organisations (e.g. companies) and of countries. Debt conversion can be carried out on a domestic or international market (S. Albertijn, et all., 2011, pp. 2-4).
For companies, an example of debt swapping for another financial instrument may be a debt-to-equity swap of a company's liability (e.g. arising from a loan, credit or commercial transaction). As a result of such a debt-to-equity swap, the company's liability expires and the existing creditor becomes its shareholder (S. Albertijn, et all., 2011, pp. 2-4).
The establishment of funding operations
Funding operations play a key role in the management of any company, regardless of its size and other parameters determining its potential. They are the glue connecting all the manifestations of the company's activity (A.O. Akinola 2014, pp. 71-73). This makes it necessary to adopt a systemic approach to management, based on financial categories. Such an approach assumes specific functions of financial processes. These functions relate primarily to: the selection of sources of funds acquisition, determination of expected benefits and costs resulting from their involvement in various assets, assessment of the accompanying risk, estimation of planned and actual revenues of the company, assessment of its financial liquidity, profitability and managerial efficiency (A.O. Akinola 2014, pp. 71-73).
Together they constitute a coherent process consisting of long-term and operational decisions. The essence and role of the financing process results from the dependencies that occur within the financial resources. This process includes all undertakings in the company that provide the company with capital and serve to shape a rational structure of financing sources in specific market conditions (A.O. Akinola 2014, pp. 71-73). The expression of this process is a specific financing strategy of the company, which includes the acquisition of specific sources of financing for the company. Within the decision-making process related to finance, it stands out (A.O. Akinola 2014, pp. 71-73):
- principles of financing the activity of enterprises;
- financing objectives;
- methods and tools for implementing the principles and objectives;
- stages of shaping and implementing the financing strategy.
Examples of funding operations activities
Internationally, a debt conversion transaction may be described as an arrangement to sell or change in the international financial market the debtor's liability held by the bank. Depending on what is swapped, several principal swaps can be exchanged (R. Brealey,et all., 2006, pp. 25):
- debt for debt swap
- debt for capital swap
- debt for commodity swap (debt for commodity swap)
- debt for nature swap
- debt-for-bond swap transactions sometimes also include debt for bond swap and buy-back.
Debt consolidation as a way of funding operations
Debt consolidation is the combination of two or more previous borrowings into one, while aligning the interest rate and other terms of the loan, usually with an extension of the repayment period. The main motive behind the use of debt consolidation is to reduce debt servicing costs (E. Ndaguba, 2018, pp. 67-69).
In public finance, the consolidation of public debt involves the elimination in the debt account of mutual liabilities of entities classified as belonging to the public finance sector. This approach eliminates double counting of certain amounts and ensures correct calculation of the deficit (or budget surplus) and debt of the entire public finance sector (E. Ndaguba, 2018, pp. 67-69). This is related to the so-called principle of formal unity of public finance, which requires treating public finance in macroeconomic analysis as a single pool of cash (E. Ndaguba, 2018, pp. 67-69).
Short-term sources of financing
Short-term sources of financing are liabilities with a maximum of one year's settlement term. In the case of companies with a working capital cycle longer than one year, the deadline for settling liabilities may not exceed the length of this cycle (V. Babich, P. Kouvelis, 2018, 14-18). The financial needs of a company vary depending on the scale of its activity and the demand for its products. If the needs increase, they are financed by an increase in long- and short-term liabilities. The entrepreneur has the possibility to cover his liabilities by using different financial strategies for managing current assets and short-term liabilities.
As a source of financing for short-term needs the company is usually mentioned (V. Babich, P. Kouvelis, 2018, 14-18):
- short-term bank loans and borrowings,
- short-term debt securities, e.g. bills of exchange,
- liabilities towards suppliers and other current liabilities (e.g. buyer's credit, liabilities towards other public-law institutions' budgets, liabilities towards employees),
- other short-term sources of financing (e.g. factoring).
Sources of long-term financing in funding operations
A company should finance its investment activities with long-term capital because it remains in the unit for more than one year (A. Eskola, et all., 2018,pp. 178-180). Liabilities of a long-term nature usually have a significant value and concern investments spread over many years (modernisation of machinery, purchase of real estate).
The following long-term sources of external financing can be distinguished (A. Ordanini, 2011, pp.443-470):
- bank long-term loans,
- other long-term sources of finance,
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Author: Karolina Szlachtun