|Methods and techniques|
Taking Myllyla (2018) 's research into account I can say that the term innovation designates both a process and its result. Innovation is the transformation of an idea into a new or improved marketable product or service, a new or improved operative manufacturing or distribution procedure, or a new method of providing a social service. As progress has been made in understanding the innovation process, new and increasingly sophisticated models have emerged.
From the analysis of the proposals made by different authors, it can be deduced that there are some models about the innovation process that are more widespread and accepted in the general literature. The most outstanding models are the Linear Models, the Staged Models, the Interactive or Mixed Models, the Integrated Models and the Network Model as investigated by Godin (2005).
Technological innovation is described as a conversion process, in which some inputs are converted into products over a series of steps. Thus, the first models on the innovation process, although they are very simplistic in their considerations, do not stop having their historical value, since they established the bases of the later models. Its main characteristic is its linearity, which implies a progressive, sequential and orderly staggering from scientific discovery (source of innovation), to applied research, technological development, manufacturing and the market launch of novelty.
These models, like the previous ones, consider innovation as a linear sequential activity. One of its main contributions is that they include elements of both the push of technology and the pull of demand. The main steps are: An idea that becomes an input for the R & D department, from there it goes to design, engineering, production, marketing and finally, the product is obtained as an output of the process.
Idea-> R & D Department-> Design Department-> Engineering Department-> Production Department-> Marketing Department-> New Product Interactive or Mixed Models:
The Interactive or Mixed Models were considered by the companies as a best-practice. The companies are aimed at rationalization and cost control. These models incorporate retroactive processes of communication between the various stages.
The so-called "rugby approach" in product development contrasts with the traditional approach of a sequential nature. Under this approach, the product development process takes place in a multidisciplinary group whose members work together from start to finish. Instead of going through perfectly structured and defined stages, the process is shaped through the interactions of the members of the group. For example, a group of engineers can start with the product design before all the results of the feasibility tests have been obtained.
Model in Network
The Systems Integration and Network Establishment Model underscores the learning that takes place within and between companies, and suggests that innovation is generally, and fundamentally, a network distributed process.
- Myllyla, J. (2018) Key Innovation Management Models and Theories. Viima.
- Godin, B. (2005). The Linear Model of Innovation: The Historical Construction of an Analytical Framework, Montreal. Canadá
Author: Gonzalo Martínez-Cañavate Gómez-Millán