|Methods and techniques|
System approach to management arose as a result of attempts to overcome the limitations of the diagnostic approach. It was initiated by Ludwig von Bertalanffy founder and creator of general systems theory and Norbert Wiener founder of cybernetics. It takes into account the dynamics of industrial output created by Jay Wright Forrester and operations research.
Essential features of the system approach
Recognition of the organization, as a system, whose subsystems form a hierarchical structure, and comprehensive examination of its structure. In practice, this approach reduces the system to identify and study the function of the system and design improvements through analysis of the most recent, best practices. The basic canon of systems thinking is to seek to understand the essence of things and grasp the essentials for the analysed system (process) without details and matters of secondary importance
Methodology used in the system approach to management
In addition to functional and calibration methodologies, such as the method of G. Nadler, and method of functional-diagnostic analysis, other method can be used ie: RAPPOS, predictive method.
The most representative of the systematic approach in the organization should be considered predictive method created by J. Trzcieniecki. It involves three steps: initial study, design and implementation.
In the initial phase of the system objectives are formulated and tasks to be solved in the design process. Primary phase is the resolution of the merits of the design and analysis the existing situation. The next step in this phase includes the design of the standard organizational system. Designing a new organizational system is done by modifying the system established under the ideal conditions. After this, managers determine the number of alternative solutions to be used in practice. Final phase of predictive method is implementation of chosen solution in practice.
- Boulding, K. E. (1956). General systems theory-the skeleton of science. Management science, 2(3), 197-208.
- Forrester, J. W. (1997). Industrial dynamics. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 48(10), 1037-1041.
- Kast, R. E., & Rosenzweig, J. E. (1974). Organization and management. New York.
- Kast, F. E., & Rosenzweig, J. E. (1972). General systems theory: Applications for organization and management. Academy of management journal, 15(4), 447-465.