Know-how is an information about the production process not covered by patents and licensing agreements, because they does not have clear and distinct nature of invention. They relate to the content of individual components in the final product or a particular stage of processing, connecting individual components together (e.g.. linking individual machines in the technological line), also technical methods associated with the patented processes and products necessary for the practical use of patents and their implementation into production. It also determines the technical knowledge and special properties discovered by the manufacturer as a result of its ongoing research, and not known to the competition.
There are technical know-how on production issues, as well as know-how about logistics and sales experience in trade of goods or services.
Know-how is referred as an experience, technical and non-technical knowledge, which is confidential in nature. It is characterized by the ability to identify and describe its practical use in business.
Examples of business know-how
Know-how refers to the practical knowledge and expertise that allows an individual or organization to perform a specific task or solve a specific problem. It is a type of hidden knowledge that is often gained through experience and practice.
- long-term strategy for public relations to the selected client,
- database of contacts to representatives of customers
- developed system of quality standards of customer service
- method to reduce the cost of production.
Applications of know-how
Some common applications of know-how include:
- Manufacturing and production: Know-how is often used in the manufacturing and production process to optimize efficiency, reduce costs, and improve quality.
- Research and development: Know-how is used in research and development to design and create new products, processes, and technologies.
- Service industries: Know-how is often used in service industries such as consulting, finance, and healthcare to provide specialized expertise to clients.
- Art and design: Know-how is used in art and design to create unique and innovative works.
- Entrepreneurship: Know-how is used by entrepreneurs to start and grow their own business, as well as to develop new products and services.
- Problem-solving: Know-how is used to solve complex problems, troubleshoot and resolve issues and develop new solutions.
- Operations: Know-how is used in operations to optimize the use of resources and improve the effectiveness of processes.
- Sales and marketing: Know-how is used in sales and marketing to create effective marketing strategies and campaigns.
- Roberts, J. (2000). From know-how to show-how? Questioning the role of information and communication technologies in knowledge transfer. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 12(4), 429-443.