Level of development
|Level of development|
Concept of level of development relates to various areas of management.
- in project management it relates to degree in which particular project idea is developed and executed (in construction projects LOD - level of development specification is used to give a tool for measuring state of particular project)
- in psychology level of development relates to complex set of behaviours, attitudes and motivations formed by employee during childhood, school and work, which results of his/her efficiency and productivity
Psychological approach to level of development
Development psychology - This conception is interested in the study of behavioral changes through the human’s life range. Most research has been dealing mainly with three stages: Infant, child and adolescent. The investigation of behavior at, have been included within traditional concept of psychology of Child and adolescent, rather than, development divided into particular periods. In the rapid growth of theoretical positions of development psychology such an conceptions as: actual needs, awareness of the public and research supporting, all went into very close relation.
Infancy - This stage is considering human being between the birth to age of two. Infant has all reflexes sustaining his life right after the birth such as: Breathing, swallowing etc. New born baby reacts to noise, pressure, temperature differences, level of its comfort, touch. When new born infant feels touch on cheek, it responds automatically with the turn of its head towards the touch and also his mouth is being opened. This respond has been called rooting response. That reflex disappears within couple of weeks, It is change by involuntary head turning. Other rooting reflex worth mentioning is ability of swimming, right after our birth, we lose this after 17-28 weeks. This shows how quickly human being develops at this stage of life, everything changes rapidly, perception of surrounding world, reflexes etc.
In economics economical development relates to level of country development: developing country, less developed country, underdeveloped country, developed country
Conception of developed country typically refers to a state with developed economy, highly advanced technology. The most common criteria of evaluation development are gross domestic product, gross national product, the per capita income, standard of living etc. Recently, another measure, the Human development Index (HDI) has become salient. This particular index is a combination of three components:
- Life expectancy at birth
- Level of education
- Per capita income
- Chinn, M. D., & Ito, H. (2006). What matters for financial development? Capital controls, institutions, and interactions. Journal of development economics, 81(1), 163-192
- Eatwell J., Milgate M., Newman P. (1987) “The New Palgrave: A Dictionary of Economics” volume 1
- Hulten R. C., Isaksson A., (2007) Why Development Levels Differ: The Sources of Differential Economic Growth in a Panel of High and Low Income Countries
- Mainwaring, S., & Pérez-Liñán, A. (2003). Level of development and democracy: Latin American exceptionalism, 1945-1996. Comparative Political Studies, 36(9), 1031-1067.
- Sachs D. J. (2004) Stages of Economic Development (transcript). Speech at the Chinese Academy of Arts and Sciences Beijing
- Sudhir A., Amartya K. Sen (1994) Human Development Index: Methodology and Measurement. Human Development Report Office: Occasional Papers (12)
Author: Grzegorz Szewczyk