# Real cost

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**Real cost** is the actual cost of producing or providing a good or service. It includes the cost of labor, materials, transportation, and other variable costs associated with the production process.

These costs can be broken down into two categories: fixed costs and variable costs. Fixed costs are those costs that remain constant regardless of the amount of output produced. Examples of fixed costs include rent, insurance, and salaries. Variable costs, on the other hand, are those costs that change according to the amount of output produced. Examples of variable costs include material costs and transportation costs.

In order to calculate the real cost of a good or service, the total fixed and variable costs must be taken into account. This is done by first calculating the fixed costs and then adding the variable costs for each unit produced. The total of the fixed and variable costs is then divided by the total number of units produced, resulting in the real cost per unit.

## Example and formula of Real cost

Real cost can be calculated using the following formula\[{Real Cost per Unit} = \frac{Fixed Costs + Variable Cost}{Number of Units Produced}\]

For example, if a company spent $10,000 on fixed costs and $2,000 on variable costs for producing 100 units, the real cost per unit would be calculated as follows\[Real Cost per Unit = \frac{10,000 + 2,000}{100} = \$120\]

## When to use Real cost

Real cost is used to determine the cost of producing a good or service, and is especially useful for businesses that need to know how much it costs to produce a certain amount of output. It can also be used to compare costs between different suppliers, as well as to compare the cost of producing different products. Additionally, real cost can be used to make decisions about how much to produce and how much to charge for a good or service.

## Types of Real cost

- Fixed costs are costs that remain constant regardless of the amount of output produced. Examples of fixed costs include rent, insurance, and salaries.
- Variable costs are those costs that change according to the amount of output produced. Examples of variable costs include material costs and transportation costs.

## Steps of Real cost

In order to calculate the real cost of a good or service, the following steps must be taken:

- First, calculate the fixed costs associated with the production or provision of the good or service.
- Then, calculate the variable costs associated with the production or provision of the good or service.
- Finally, add the fixed and variable costs together, and then divide the total cost by the total number of units produced. This will result in the real cost per unit.

## Advantages of Real cost

The advantages of real cost include:

**Improved efficiency**: Tracking real costs allows businesses to identify and eliminate inefficiencies in their production process, resulting in fewer wasted resources.**Increased profits**: Accurately calculating real costs allows businesses to set prices that will maximize their profits.**Improved decision-making**: Knowing real costs helps businesses make better decisions regarding production, pricing, and other aspects of the business.

## Limitations of Real cost

Real cost has a number of limitations, including:

- It does not take into account opportunity costs - the cost of not being able to use resources for other purposes.
- It does not account for externalities such as environmental costs associated with production.
- It does not take into account any potential efficiencies of scale, which could reduce costs.

There are several other approaches associated with real cost, including marginal cost, average cost, and opportunity cost.

- Marginal cost is the change in total cost associated with producing one additional unit of output. It is calculated by taking the difference between the total cost of producing one additional unit and the total cost of producing one fewer unit.
- Average cost is the total cost divided by the total number of units produced. It is calculated by dividing the total cost by the total number of units produced.
- Opportunity cost is the value of the next best alternative that is forgone when a decision is made. It is calculated by taking the difference between the cost of the alternative forgone and the cost of the chosen alternative.

In conclusion, there are several approaches associated with real cost, including marginal cost, average cost, and opportunity cost. Each of these approaches is used to analyze the cost of producing a good or service.

## Suggested literature

- Soni, N., & Williams, P. (2008).
*Positive pressure ventilation: what is the real cost?*. British journal of anaesthesia, 101(4), 446-457. - Zhivich, M., & Cunningham, R. K. (2009).
*The real cost of software errors*. IEEE Security & Privacy, 7(2), 87-90.