|Methods and techniques|
Transit shipment is a delivery operation which happens between two places which are not port of destination and port of origin. Transit is a common situation for land transport between a country without access to the sea and those that have access. For example goods delivered from any seaport in Germany to Hungary, are crossing Austria or Czech Republic. That crossing is called transit shipment. Globalization has become more and more omnipresent - goods are ordered and delivered around the world. The only limitations are distances and costs of transport(Sarkar P. K., 2015, p.365-374).
Transit procedure is the result of the implementation of the assumptions of the European Union - it is the a delivery of goods without any customs barriers.
There are two types of transit:internal and external:
- External transit of Non-Community goods – This is the transfer from one place to another within the areas of the community. All transported goods at that time are not subject to customs operations, fees or other commercial policy measures.
- External transit of Community goods - This is the transfer from one place to another within the areas of the Community. Transport concerns the goods that are subject to export requirements to third countries and for which all customs formalities have been carried out.
There is possibility to use external transit procedures for transport through the third-country territory(Danz T. L., 2013, p. 3-10).
- Internal Transit - Transport of Community goods from one place to another in the customs territory of the Community, through the territory of a third country, without changing customs status of the goods.
Goods are tranported from one point in a country to another country on the basis of the same customs document (transit declaration card), customs formalities are kept to a minimum. In the transit of goods, there is a possibility to change the means of transport, however, the division of the shipment or change of content is not allowed. A customs guarantee must be lodged in the transit procedure.
Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T)
This is a European Union project which started in 1990 – it plans to build a network of rails, roads, airports and seaports around Europe(Johnson D., 1997, p.73). Core Network Corridors:
- Baltic-Adriatic ( Poland – Italy)
- North Sea – Baltic ( Estonia – Netherlands)
- Mediterranean (Hungary – Spain)
- Orient/East- Mediterranean (Germany – Bulgaria/Greece
- Scandinavian – Mediterranean (Norway/Sweden - South Italy)
- Rhine – Alpine (Netherlands –North Italy)
- Atlantic (West Germany – Spain/Portugal)
- North Sea- Mediterranean (Scotland – South France)
- Rhine – Danube(West Germany - Romania)
Types of transport
There are five main types of transport:
Roads are modified on a regular basis in accordance with the changing demand. This project aims to improve the transport infrastructure of the European Union, to connect remote areas, good connections with other modes of transport and to build bypasses of central European cities . In addition, the road infrastructure is to be modern, safe and open to everyone.
- Railways and Trains
It is divided for high speed rail network and conventional one: Its most important role is long distance passanger transport and freight transport, about 250 million tons of goods were transported in Poland in 2018
There are three categories of airports:
- International connecting points with annual freight transport above 150000 tones
- Community connecting points with annual freight transport between 50000 to 150000 tones
- Regional connecting points with annual freight transport less than 50000 tones
Similar to Airports there are three types of seaports:
- International connecting points with annual freight transport above 1,5 milion tones
- Community connecting points with annual freight transport between 0, 5 to 1,5 milion tones
- Regional connecting points with annual freight transport less than 0,5 miion tones
- Inland ports and waterways
Each inland port must meet specific requirements so that it can serve ships as well as passenger traffic. Land shipping is the least known mean of transport, but very popular when it comes to freight shipping . An example of Inland waterway is Duna river.
- Decision No 1692/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 July 1996 on Community guidelines for the development of the trans-European transport network (1996)Official Journal L 228, p. 0001 - 0104
- Coyle J. J. (2008), Supply Chain Management: A Logistics Perspective, South – Westing, p. 453-455
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- Johnson D. (1997), Trans-European Networks: The Political Economy of Integrating Europe’s Infrastructure, Palgrave, p. 73
- Rodrigue J. P., Hesse M., (2004), The transport geography of logistics and freight distribution, Journal of Transport Geography, no. 12, p. 171–184
- Sarkar P. K. (2015), Transportation planning, Delhi, p. 365-374
Author: Angelika Zając