Multimodal transport is a transport system that relies on moving goods using a minimum of two separate transport branches based on one contract. The person who is responsible for the delivery and delivery time signs a transport contract with the client, in which the delivery conditions and possible costs incurred by the carrier for late delivery or damage to the goods are taken into account.
The objectives of multimodal transport
- Reducing transport costs
- Minimizing the delivery time of the product
- Improvement and improvement of the product's path from the manufacturer to the customer.
An essential condition in the pursuit of multimodal transport is the standardization of loading units and the normalization of transport and transport machines. The current standardization of transport node devices and all components included in their composition is also required.
Operator of the multimodal transport system
The operator is a key element of the multimodal transport system. This functions can be performed by a forwarder, logistics or carrier by sea, air or car. The operator, when signing the contract, swears and takes full responsibility for the transported goods, its completeness, degree of damage or transport problems. The operator may be bound by a contract with other carriers in order to increase and improve the services offered, but he is then responsible for monitoring and coordinating their work. Operators can be divided into direct who have their own communication and transport fleet or intermediate who need subcontractors to make the transport order take effect.
Organizational solutions for multimodal transport
Multimodal transport systems are significantly diversified in terms of the scope and structure of the services offered. The most common are two system solutions. In the first one containing only the transport cycle, the operator takes over his duties from taking over the container to passing the load. In the second approach, the transport cycle connects with the container turnover cycle. The operator, apart from the tasks that comprise the transport cycle, additionally performs delivery, filling, emptying and transfer of the container. International transport plays a special role in multimodal transport. Types of organizational solutions of the transport process depending on the distance of transport and the availability of transport means
- Car and rail transport
- Car and water transport
- Car, rail and water transport
- Car and air transport
- Car, rail and air transport
- Car and sea transport
- Railway and sea transport
- Car, rail and sea transport.
The beginnings of a multimodal transport system
The rapid growth of international trade and exchange of goods, which took place in the 20th century, showed participants in trade to use all possible means of transport. This was also influenced by the growing competition from the emerging transport companies, the constantly increasing traffic on roads and border crossings, and environmental pollution, which forced the operators and their customers to find alternative ways of transporting goods. The development of the multimodal was determined in the 1960s on a large scale of containers in all types of transport. Containerization was indispensable due to the increasing mass of goods that went to the foreign market. The reloading sites began to have problems in the field of efficient and quick unloading or reloading of goods, especially with small goods at which it was possible to notice a significant loss of time, so it was invented to create large cargo units from them and secure them in a metal container. This revolution was initially used more often on cargo ships, but it also developed very quickly in land and air transport.
Documents of multimodal transport
Carriage of goods from the warehouse location and their outlets required not one means of transport for the purpose of transport to be carried out. This situation was often repeated when international transport was entering the area where sea transport was the best solution. At the beginning, the customer signed the contract separately with each particular means of transport. Later, however, the role of organizing transport was taken by forwarders. The first organizational unit that in 1970. developed the terms of combined transport was the "International Federation of Fiat Forwarders". The document was "Fiat Bill of Lading". The International Chamber of Commerce in 1973 introduced a unification of the rule for combined transport documents, these rules were accepted by both parties and implemented. In 1975, these rules were updated and in 1978 adopted in 1970. the so-called. The Hamburg rule which concerned the carriage of goods by sea. The most important document for multimodal transport was created in the 90's and its application has helped the whole world. According to his rules, the forwarder is responsible for the goods and damage caused to him during transport on the whole of his route, not only in individual transport departments. This document is called "FIATA Multimodal Transport".
- Harris, I., Wang, Y., & Wang, H. (2015). ICT in multimodal transport and technological trends: Unleashing potential for the future. International Journal of Production Economics, 159, 88-103.
- Olafsson, A. S., Nielsen, T. S., & Carstensen, T. A. (2016). Cycling in multimodal transport behaviours: Exploring modality styles in the Danish population. Journal of transport geography, 52, 123-130.
- Chow, J. Y., & Djavadian, S. (2015). Activity-based market equilibrium for capacitated multimodal transport systems. Transportation Research Procedia, 7, 2-23.