# Types of production

Production type depend on the degree of specialization of the individual workstations and related stability level associated with the performance of the operators in the production process. Production type depends on the setup frequency of machines and equipment. It refers to a specific machine center, which provides a crucial link in the basic structure of the manufacturing process.

Two indicators are used to determine the type of production:

- Ratio of operations performed per workstation (for existing production units)

\( k = \frac{\sum{dli}}{Ld} \)

- k - ratio of operations (machine setup) in the production cell

- dli - count (total) of carried out operations (setups) in manufacturing cell
- Ld - number of workstations in the production cell

Ranges of "k" ratio determine particular type of production:

- k = 1 - mass production type
- k = 2 ÷ 10 - large series production type
- k = 10 ÷ 20 - average series production type
- k = 20 ÷ 30 - small batch production
- k > 30 - unitary production

- Machine center operations load factor (for the new production units)

\(\eta ij = \frac{Zgi}{Mgij} = \frac{Nni * tij}{Fj * \phi j}\)

- η ij-j - load factor of particular machine center of ij-th operation
- Zgi - hourly task of the i-th component
- Mgij - hourly capacity of ij-th operation
- Nni - production program of the i-th component
- Fj - working time fund for j-th machine center
- tij - unit of normative effort for ij-th operation
- φj - planned correction factor for the standard of execution

Using the coefficient ηij following types of production are distinguished:

- η ij = 1 - mass production type
- η ij = 0, 5 ÷ 0, 2 - large series production type
- η ij = 0, 2 ÷ 0, 05 - average series production type
- η ij = 0, 05 to 0, 03 - small batch production type
- η ij < 0, 03 - unitary production type

## References

- Stevenson, W. J., & Sum, C. C. (2009).
*Operations management*(Vol. 8). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.