7S model for strategic planning and analysis was created by the McKinsey & Company. This model was proposed by Peters and Waterman in 1984, and takes into account following intangible characteristics of the organization:
- Shared values - the rules of conduct and philosophy widely known in the organization, which all employees are driven by,
- Strategy - followed by the organization,
- Structure - the formal relationship between the parts that make up the organization. It relates to the relations between business levels, branches and departments,
- Systems - that carry out specific activities, processes, or are used to solve problems in a company,
- Staffing - which means the recruitment of new employees, requirements planning and competences of already employed workers,
- Skills - capabilities of the organization and the skill level presented by members of the organization,
- Style - the treatment of members of the organization in mutual contacts and above all management style.
7S model is not a recipe for building a perfect strategy, but it is a stimulus to rethink the internal activities of the company that affect its future development.
- Waterman, R. H., Peters, T. J., & Phillips, J. R. (1980). The 7-S framework. Chapter, 6, 309-314.
- Waterman Jr, R. H. (1982). The seven elements of strategic fit. The Journal of Business Strategy, 2(3), 69.
- Kaplan, R. S. (2005). How the balanced scorecard complements the McKinsey 7-S model. Strategy & Leadership, 33(3), 41-46.
- Hanafizadeh, P., & Ravasan, A. Z. (2011). A McKinsey 7S model-based framework for ERP readiness assessment. International Journal of Enterprise Information Systems (IJEIS), 7(4), 23-63.