Activity measure

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An activity measure is an indicator that shows the size, value or quality of a given phenomenon.

The measure of economic activity is processed statistical data that presents the situation in a given country and the standard of living of citizens.

The most important indicators of economic development:

Basic quantitative indicators

The gross domestic product is the market value of all goods and services produced in the country at a given time (usually during the year). There are three methods to measure GPD: income, expenditure and production method. In the "expenditure method", GDP is understood as the sum of expenditure incurred by households, government and enterprises over a given period. The income method informs about the amount of income generated by enterprises from their activities. The production method presents the indicator as the value of manufactured goods and services reduced by intermediate consumption and increased by taxes[1].

The gross national product is an indicator that takes into account the value of goods and services (as well as income or expenses incurred) generated (obtained) by the entire nation, including enterprises with branches in another country (outside the country)[2]. The GNP indicator comes from the GDP indicator. However, the measure of gross domestic product is the one which more closely reflects the situation in a given country.

The purchasing power parity it is an exchange rate calculated on the basis of prices of selected goods and services in several countries at the same time[3]. In order to calculate the purchasing power parity indicator, it is necessary to collect prices of comparable goods or services for the analyzed countries and to calculate the weighted average. It is considered that purchasing power parity is a better indicator than the stock exchange rate because it includes purchasing power.

Research on the development of society

The human development index it is an indicator that shows the degree of socio-economic development. HDI shows us the development of society on three levels: standard of living, life expectancy at birth and the level of education of the citizens of the country. HDI results can range from 0 to 1[4]. When calculating the social development indicator, you may often encounter problems, such as large amounts of data, data authenticity, or a problem with the expression of the indicator.

Activity based costing

Activity-based costing (also known as ABC method) is used to determine the amount of indirect costs per product. Thanks to this measurement method, we can determine calculations and the cost structure. Costs are allocated based on cost drivers. A measure of activity does not build costs, but the activities that generate them[5].

Examples of Activity measure

  • Customer loyalty metrics - Customer loyalty metrics measure the strength of customer relationships, such as repeat purchases, customer lifetime value, customer satisfaction scores, and customer referrals.
  • Return on Investment (ROI) - Return on Investment (ROI) is a tool used to measure the effectiveness of an investment or activity, expressed as a ratio of the gain from the investment relative to its cost.
  • Social Media Engagement - Social media engagement metrics measure how many people are interacting with and responding to a brand's content on social media. Examples include likes, shares, comments, and click-through rates.
  • Employee Engagement - Employee engagement metrics measure the level of motivation and enthusiasm that employees have towards their job. Examples include employee surveys, exit interviews, and absenteeism rates.

Advantages of Activity measure

Activity measures provide a valuable tool for assessing various aspects of a given phenomenon. Some of the advantages of activity measures include:

  • Improved visibility and understanding of the phenomenon being measured: Activity measures provide a detailed and comprehensive picture of the phenomenon being measured, allowing for a better understanding of its dynamics and characteristics.
  • Enhanced decision making: Activity measures can provide useful information to aid in decision making, such as which areas need further investment, or which activities should be prioritized.
  • Improved performance monitoring: Activity measures can be used to track performance over time, and identify areas for improvement.
  • Improved resource allocation: Activity measures can be used to accurately allocate resources to the most productive areas.
  • Increased efficiency: Activity measures can help to identify and implement the most efficient processes and activities.

Limitations of Activity measure

Activity measures are an important tool for understanding the size, value or quality of a given phenomenon, but they are not perfect. Below are some limitations of activity measures:

  • Activity measures often depend on arbitrary definitions and conventions. For example, a measure of economic activity may include certain types of spending but not others, or may be based on a specific set of assumptions.
  • Activity measures often have limited scope. They may only provide a snapshot of an activity in one particular region or context, rather than giving a comprehensive view of the activity across multiple contexts.
  • Activity measures may be based on outdated data or incomplete information, leading to an inaccurate picture of the activity.
  • Activity measures can be difficult to interpret, since they may use technical language or concepts that are unfamiliar to many people.
  • Activity measures may be subject to manipulation, as those involved in the activity may seek to influence the measure to suit their own interests.

Other approaches related to Activity measure

In addition to activity measures, there are several other approaches to quantifying the size, value, and quality of a given phenomenon. These include the following:

  • Relative performance measures, which compare the performance of a given phenomenon against a benchmark, such as its past performance or the performance of competitors.
  • Cost-benefit analysis, which attempts to measure the net benefit of a given phenomenon by comparing its costs and benefits.
  • Risk analysis, which assesses the potential risks of a given phenomenon based on its probability and severity.
  • Efficiency measures, which evaluate the efficiency of a given phenomenon by comparing its inputs and outputs.
  • Quality measures, which attempt to quantify the quality of a given phenomenon.

In summary, activity measures are just one of several approaches to quantifying the size, value, and quality of a given phenomenon. Other approaches include relative performance measures, cost-benefit analysis, risk analysis, efficiency measures, and quality measures.


  1. World Bank. 2013. p.15-16
  2. Corona Brezina. 2011. p. 12
  3. A. Ignatiuk. 2009. p. 4-6
  4. A. Griffiths, S. Wall. 2007. p. 624-625
  5. J.Lal, S.Srivastava. 2009. p. 323-324

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Author: Klaudia Broś