Computer information systems
Computer information systems (CIS) are systems that use technology to collect, store, process, and distribute data to support the goals and objectives of an organization. They are composed of both software and hardware components and are used to provide a platform for information exchange between users, applications, and data sources. CIS are used to capture, store, and manage data that is used to inform management decisions, automate business processes, improve customer service, and support decision-making. They can also monitor the performance of an organization, identify areas for improvement, and enable faster and more accurate data processing.
Example of computer information systems
- Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems: An ERP system is a software suite that integrates applications and data across an organization. It automates and streamlines business processes, such as accounting, human resources, and customer relationship management, while also providing tools to analyze and report data.
- Business Intelligence (BI) Systems: BI systems are designed to analyze large amounts of data from multiple sources, identify patterns and correlations, and draw conclusions from the data. They enable businesses to make better decisions, improve customer service, and maximize resources.
- Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Systems: CRM systems are used to manage customer data, track customer interactions, and automate customer service. They enable businesses to better understand customer needs, anticipate customer behavior, and build stronger relationships with customers.
- Supply Chain Management (SCM) Systems: SCM systems enable businesses to monitor and manage their supply chain operations, from the procurement of raw materials to the delivery of finished products. They help businesses optimize their supply chain processes, reduce costs, and increase efficiency.
- Sales Force Automation (SFA) Systems: SFA systems are designed to automate the sales process, from customer prospecting to order tracking and fulfillment. They help businesses improve visibility into sales activity, track performance, and increase sales efficiency.
When to use computer information systems
Computer information systems are used in a variety of ways to support an organization's operations. They can be used to automate processes, capture, store, and manage data, monitor performance, and facilitate decision-making.
- CIS can be used to automate business processes, such as payroll and billing, reducing the time and cost of manual processing.
- Data can be collected and stored in a centralized repository, allowing the organization to access and analyze it quickly and accurately.
- CIS can be used to monitor organizational performance, identify areas for improvement, and guide decision-making and strategy.
- CIS can also be used to improve customer service by providing real-time access to information and enabling faster response times.
Types of computer information systems
A computer information system (CIS) is a combination of hardware, software, networks, and databases that support the operations of an organization. There are many different types of CIS, each of which are designed to address a specific business need. These include:
- Transaction Processing Systems (TPS): TPS are designed to capture, store, update, and retrieve data related to business transactions. These systems are used to process financial transactions, such as sales and purchases, and can be used to track inventory and customer information.
- Decision Support Systems (DSS): DSS are used to provide decision makers with access to relevant data and analysis tools to help support their decision making. This type of system can be used to analyze customer trends, identify potential areas of improvement, and make predictions about future performance.
- Management Information Systems (MIS): MIS are used to collect, store, and analyze data about an organization's operations. This type of system can be used to create reports, track performance, and identify areas for improvement.
- Executive Information Systems (EIS): EIS are designed to provide executives with access to key data and reports in a timely manner. This type of system is used to summarize the performance of an organization in a user-friendly and visual manner.
- Knowledge Management Systems (KMS): KMS are used to capture and store knowledge across an organization. This type of system can be used to store documents, share information, and locate experts.
Advantages of computer information systems
Computer information systems (CIS) provide numerous advantages to organizations and individuals. These advantages include:
- Increased efficiency - CIS can help organizations to streamline their processes and increase efficiency. By automating and integrating processes, CIS can help save time, reduce errors, and increase productivity.
- Improved customer service - CIS can help organizations to better manage customer data, track customer service interactions, and improve customer service.
- Better decision-making - CIS can provide organizations with real-time data and insights that can be used to make informed decisions quickly.
- Cost savings - CIS can help organizations to reduce costs by streamlining processes and eliminating redundant tasks.
- Enhanced communication - CIS can help organizations to share information quickly and easily between departments, allowing for better collaboration and faster decision-making.
Limitations of computer information systems
Computer information systems (CIS) are a crucial part of many modern organizations, however, there are a number of limitations that need to be considered when implementing these systems. These include:
- Lack of flexibility: CIS are typically designed with a set of predefined functions and processes, meaning they cannot be easily customized to suit the needs of an organization.
- Cost: CIS can be expensive to implement and maintain, especially if they are complex and require multiple components.
- Security risks: With the increasing amount of data stored on computer systems, there is a greater risk of unauthorized access or data loss due to security breaches.
- Human error: Despite automated processes, there is still a risk of human error when using CIS, which can lead to incorrect data or incorrect output.
- Technological obsolescence: As technology advances, computer systems can quickly become outdated, which can lead to compatibility issues and increased maintenance costs.
Computer information systems can be further extended by incorporating a number of other approaches. These include:
- Business Process Re-engineering (BPR): This involves the redesign of business processes to increase efficiency and effectiveness. It can be used to automate repetitive tasks, streamline processes, and improve customer service.
- Business Intelligence (BI): This involves the use of data-driven decision-making and analytics to gain insights into the business. BI can be used to generate reports, identify opportunities for improvement, and uncover trends.
- Knowledge Management (KM): This involves the use of software and systems to store and manage information. KM enables organizations to store, share, and access information quickly and effectively.
- Cloud Computing: This involves the use of virtualized computing resources stored in the cloud. It can be used to store and access data from remote locations.
|Computer information systems — recommended articles|
|Enterprise resource planning — Enterprise information system — Telematics and informatics — Integrated management system — Harvesting strategy — Enterprise information management — Supply chain integration — SCM system — Processing of information|
- Robey, D. (1981). Computer information systems and organization structure. Communications of the ACM, 24(10), 679-687.
- Kaplan, B., & Maxwell, J. A. (2005). Qualitative research methods for evaluating computer information systems. Evaluating the organizational impact of healthcare information systems, 30-55.