Job vacancy is described as a job that "must be unoccupied (...), available for immediate occupancy by a new worker outside the company (...), and must be the object of an active search for a new worker outside the company" (Ross, A., 1966, p. 32-33). In addition, some of the experts include the time criterion while defining a job vacancy. For instance, Ross points out that "a job vacancy should exist for an entire week before being counted for this purpose" (Ross, A., 1966, p. 33). In order to fill the vacancy, employers need to consider and list essential requirements for a given position. These requirements should help companies in the acquisition of the best candidate. The basic requirements are then translated into a job offer available to potential candidates.
Shaping and negotiating expectations
In order to fill the vacancy, companies make use of advanced systems that screen the candidates for a given job posting. These systems support human resources departments in the first stages of recruitment and selection. However, it is vital to stress the importance of negotiation in the process of filling a vacancy and finding the candidate that would be the best fit for a given organisational structure. As mentioned by Araujo, "the success of any recruitment and retention policy lies on whether or not they address (...) workers’ needs and expectations" (2013, p. 30). These needs vary among workers and may be connected with:
- expected salary
- possibilities for development and working from home
- private medical healthcare and insurance offered by the employer.
Due to a growing need for qualified staff, many companies decide to outsource the recruitment process to agencies specialising in it. "E-recruitment", understood as a process of finding the most talented candidate for a given position by means of Internet and modern technology, enjoys great popularity nowadays (Tyagi, A., 2012, p. 302). Tyagi lists the advantages of e-recruitment (2012, p. 307):
- it is affordable for companies and does not require significant financial outlays
- it gives access to unlimited number of potential candidates, with unique skills and competences. Internet is a powerful tool that enables applications of candidates from every part of the world
- it is cost and time effective.
On the other hand, modern recruitment techniques may (Tyagi, 2012, p. 308):
- discriminate against people whose technological skills are not advanced
- result in attracting a large number of candidates whose skill sets are insufficient for a given position
- lead to diminishing the importance of face-to-face meeting with candidates.
In order to fill a vacancy efficiently by means of e-recruitment, the companies should (Tyagi, 2012, p. 310):
- remain adaptable
- actively monitor the changing trends on the labour market
- ensure the screening systems use verified selection criteria.
Although modern technology and Internet facilitate the acquisition of talented workers, traditional recruitment methods should not be disregarded (Tyagi, 2012, p. 310). This is especially pronounced in case of companies offering customer-facing positions that require advanced communication skills.
- Araujo, E., (2013), How to Recruit and Retain Health Workers in Rural and Remote Areas in Developing Countries: A Guidance Note, p. 30
- Ross, A., (1966), Job Vacancy Statistics. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Economic Statistics of the Joint Economic Committee; Congress of the United States, Eighty-ninth Congress, Second Session, pp. 32-33,
- Tyagi A., (2012), Effective Talent Acquisition through E-recruitment: a Study, "Zenith: International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research", pp. 302, 307, 308, 310
Author: Małgorzata Goryl