Levels of learning
|Levels of learning|
|Methods and techniques|
Levels of learning- to the degree of skills and skills acquired by employees during training at a given workplace. One of the most common concepts describing different levels of learning was created by J.S. Bloom - known as taxonomy is the classification of learning objectives, which despite the fact that it was created in 1956 is still a very useful tool. It is perfect for setting measurable goals from the lowest to the highest level of teaching. These goals should be transparent, realistic and achievable for those who want to learn, understandable and clearly defined.
Bloom's taxonomy consists of three spheres of educational activities:
- The cognitive (cognitive) context in which intellectual knowledge and skills come into play is, for example, critical thinking.
- Affective (emotional) which allows us to see what emotional reactions people have. It focuses on feelings, emotions, motivation and values. This is, for example, social activity or ethics in business.
- A psychomotor which focuses on changes and development of behaviors and physical skills that require active muscle participation and mind coordination. They occur, for example, in the use of devices, in sport or in art, as well as in body language, and in the negotiation and delivery of training and presentations.
The cognitive sphere
- Knowledge - this is the basic category which focuses all of its attention on the recalling of various concepts, facts, events, ways relating to how we should act, as well as methods and models.
- Understanding - this is a very important skill because it consists in interpreting the meaning of concepts, as well as comparing these concepts and then drawing important conclusions from them, based on information recorded in the memory.
- Application - focuses on the use of information, their application to solve known problems, by choosing a solution from a closed list.
- Analysis - requires the ability to recognize components, as well as the relationships and relationships between elements of a structure, which leads to inference and problem solving by providing your own answer.
- Synthesis - is the ability to select and combine components in a new structure, allows you to create new information, new answers and unique solutions to problems.
- Evaluation - focuses on the evaluation and evaluation of information due to some criterion, whether the goal, as well as the creation of own assessment criteria and arguments.
The affective sphere
- Receiving / perception - this category is used to describe simple behaviors of acceptance on the part of the student, it is expressed by the desire to receive information in a passive way.
- Answering - it is used to describe the attitudes of the student who is interested in the subject and derives satisfaction from learning - we can achieve this by reacting and actively participating in learning, e.g. by answering the question, starting a discussion.
- Valuation - understanding the values that a student matches to information. This category is used to describe attitudes when someone appreciates or when we are negative or positive about something.
- Organizing - a description of the philosophy and style of being by comparing, comparing the values of different objects to your own scheme.
- Characterization - a combination of attitudes and beliefs that make the student act in a characteristic way - invariably in the value that he has acquired in the process of learning. Descriptions of attitudes resulting from personal patterns are made.
The psychomotor sphere
- Perception (perception) - it is the ability to use sensory stimuli to control motor activity. It involves detecting, with the help of the senses, such as eyesight and hearing what will happen and reacting to it.
- A state of readiness to act (attitude) - a mental, physical or emotional state that helps determine reactions to various situations in advance.
- Targeted guidance - these are the learning stages including imitation, trials and errors. In order to be effective in your actions, you need to practice it as often as possible.
- Mechanism - when we have already learned reactions, they become habits and our movements are performed more efficiently, without much effort.
- Comprehensive or explicit response - it is a quick performance of activities that require difficult, complex movements. This includes action without consideration, without hesitation.
- Adaptation (adaptation) - skills are developed at a good level and the learner can adapt his movements to special requirements
- Originality (creation) - it consists in creating new movement patterns to match the situation in which it is located or to the problem that concerns it. Creativity has the effect of education and means highly developed skills.
- Bloom, B. S. (2006). Learning domains or Bloom’s taxonomy
- Guskey, T. R. (2007). Closing achievement gaps: revisiting Benjamin S. Bloom's “Learning for Mastery”. Journal of advanced academics, 19(1), 8-31.
- Hammad Akbar, (2003). Knowledge Levels and their Transformation: Towards the Integration of Knowledge Creation and Individual Learning School of Management, University of East Anglia, UK
- Bloom, B. S. (2006)
- Guskey, T. R. (2007)
Author: Izabela Palonek