Line production - This applies to products or services transferred through the production line. The production process is repeatable, and identical products undergo the same sequence of operations and the machines and other equipment are arranged in the order in which they are used. Line production is dedicated to the needs of one or a small group of products an (unlike serial production) the process does not have to be stopped and restarted for each new product (David Needham, Robert Dransfield,2000, s. 136).
Line production can be used where a large number of identical products are needed (large batches or mass production). Products or work in this system flows through a series of workstations organized in a straight line. Operators sitting at these workstations perform the same operation on the product and then pass it on to the next person at the next station. This work can become repetitive and boring (Barbara Lawler, Helen Wilson, 2002, s. 62).
The beginnings of line production
Henry Ford was a pioneer of line production, for years he has tried to increase the efficiency of his factories. The workers who built his Model N car arranged the parts in a row on the floor, put the car under construction on skids and dragged it along the line while they were working. Later, the improvement process became more sophisticated. For example, Ford broke the assembly of the Model T into 84 discrete steps and trained each of its employees to make only one. This is how the concept of line production (mass production) was born (Ray Batchelor, 1994, s. 20-39).
Examples of line production
Examples of line production (David Needham, Robert Dransfield,2000, s. 136-139) :
- Car assembly lines.
- Fast-food outlets.
- Production of vacuum cleaners
Advantages of line production
In the production of line, we can mention several advantages, among others.:
- Lower cost per unit produced
- A homogeneous product
- Employee specialization
- Identification of bottlenecks
Disadvantages of line production
General defects include:
- A lot of capital is needed to install production lines
- Low flexibility in changing products
- High susceptibility to failure, because a single error can stop the entire production process
The fact that the production line produces a single product or similar products limits its ability to produce anything else. For example, if a company producing model A cars wanted to produce model B, it would not be able to use the same production line. The second problem with production lines is that the initial assembly of the production line is associated with high costs and requires the production of a large number of goods to justify the capital investment
- Batchelor R. (1994),Henry Ford, Mass Production, Modernism, and Design, Manchester University Press, Manchester
- Bhardwaj B. P. (2014), The Complete Book on Production of Automobile Components & Allied Products, NIIR Project Consultancy Servises, Delhi
- Lawler B., Wilson H. (2002), Textiles Technology, Heinemann Educational Publishers, Oxford
- Needham D., Dransfield R.(2000), Advanced Business, Heinemann Educational Publishers, Oxford
- Shaaban S. (2010), Production Line Efficiency: A Comprehensive Guide for Managers, Business Expert Press, LLC, New York
Author: Łukasz Gil