|Methods and techniques|
Liner terms are the conditions under which shipping company will agree to transport goods. Liner terms usually include costs of loading, unloading, transport and discharge fee. Liner terms are from shipment company point of view.
Types of liner terms
The liner terms can be:
- Free In Out (FIO)
- Free In Liner Out (FILO)
- Full Liner Terms (FLT)
- Free In Out Stowed (FIOS)
- Free In Out Trimmed (FIOT)
- Free In Out Stowed Trimmed (FIOST)
Free In Out (FIO)
The time of transport or freight, which ends, that the costs of loading or unloading are not issued. In the context of a charter card, this means that loading / unloading is not the responsibility of the shipowner. The obligation to bear the costs of loading and unloading rests on the handle. Permission to access information about the ship.Fees for loading vary considerably depending on the port. With an FIO card, shipowners do not have to worry about the loading and unloading costs that freight forwarders and consignees have to bear. so they will not incur additional costs.
Free In Liner Out (FILO)
Includes transport and costs from unloading in accordance with the customs at port. The free unloading rate excludes loading costs and (if necessary) storage and fixing costs.
Full Liner Terms (FLT)
The FLT condition includes the freight price, which includes: land operations, on-board transshipments, fastening, detaching, security and auxiliary materials, all costs associated with reloading to the transport, along with the usual port charges/levies/taxes.
Free In Out Stowed (FIOS)
The costs of loading, unloading and reloading are costs borne by freight forwarders. For the costs associated with bringing the ship to the port, the costs of pilotage, tug etc. the ship is responsible and is responsible for bearing the costs. The forwarding agent should be carefully prepared transport plan, because if the ship exceeds the time that was planned, the stop will be an additional cost for the forwarding agent.
Free In Out Trimmed (FIOT)
Classification of freight rates, which information is included in the home port, but not for its unloading at the destination port. Here "free" means "not included" and not "inclusive". This is not Incoterm and can have different sizes in different countries.
Free In Out Stowed Trimmed (FIOST)
"Under a voyage charter, the ship provides transport for a specific cargo between a loading port and a discharging port at terms which specify a rate per carrying ton. In this case, the shipowner undertakes to carry a specific quantity of a particular commodity between two named ports at a fixed freight rate per ton (or other unit of cargo measurement).
The charterer charters whole or part of the carrying capacity of a vessel for the carriage of his cargo by sea. The charterer is obliged to provide the agreed cargo alongside the ship and pay extra for the cargo handling expenses (if “FIOST terms” are agreed at the charterparty). The charterer is also obliged to pay the stipulated amount of freight. All other costs (capital, operating and voyage costs) are for the shipowner’s account" .
- Brodie P. (2013). Commercial Shipping Hanbook Inorma Law from Routledge, New York
- Notteboom T. E., & Vernimmen, B. (2009). The effect of high fuel costs on liner service configuration in container shipping. "Journal of Transport Geography", 17(5)
- Plomaritou E. (2004) A Review of Shipowner’s & Charterer’s Obligations in Various Types of Charter "Journal of Shipping and Ocean Engineering" 307-321
- Liner Terms "GB Shipping", 20146
- Short Codes Shipping terms "Aquashell Shipiing Pte Ltd" 179433
- Plomaritou E.
Author: Natalia Borowiec