Project structure consists of a project team appointed to carry out tasks with a unique, comprehensive and innovative character. It is created for both short-term and permanent projects and projects such as: the development of an innovative, task analysis, diagnostic and design. It is complex and must directly engage the controller and key decision makers. Operational activities are generally stable, allowing standardization of procedures and predicting the behaviour of the system.
Project structures are usually modification of common organizational structures, mostly functional. Their essence is to create project teams, cells and task forces to carry out specific tasks. These tasks have usually comprehensive and innovative character. They are exactly specified concerning:
- content of task,
- cost and time of realization.
Types of project structures
Creating project structures face problems with sharing of tasks and responsibilities between company's native organizational structure, and a temporary project structure. To solve this problem, managers should choose from various subtypes of project structures differing by position in management and unit autonomy. These are the following forms:
- linear structure
- linear-staff structure,
- matrix structure,
- clean project structure,
- subsidiary created to perform project,
- implementation of a project by subcontractors.
The advantages of the project structure include, among others:
- use of the expertise of specialists,
- high flexibility and ability to respond quickly to emerging problems during the implementation of the project
- relieving management of day-to-day management of the complex project
The application of project structures creates also some disadvantages:
- rivalry between the individual projects in the same company,
- emerging tension and conflicts between the project team, and the rest of the company,
- lack of a sense of stability and uncertainty of the members of the teams,
- the possibility of overlapping of some activities in different projects
- the possibility of stabilization of the project teams and the desire to drag the project to infinity,
- Burke, R. (2013). Project management: planning and control techniques. New Jersey, USA.