- Human Resource Planning (HRP),
- Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP),
- Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP).
Human Resource Planning
HRP is a process that determines the level of staffing needs, which is necessary to formulate and implement management strategies. Planning is an element of the rational action of people who strive primarily to achieve their goals. The company should strive to ensure that its staff can exhaustively achieve their goals.
Bulla and Scott (1994) also presented the reasons for engaging in HR planning:
- Planning for substantive reasons, that is, to have a practical effect by optimizing the use of resources and/or making them more flexible, acquiring and nurturing skills that take time to develop, identifying potential problems and minimizing the chances of making a bad decision.
- Planning because of the process benefits, which involves understanding the present in order to confront the future, challenging assumptions and liberating thinking, making explicit decisions that can later be challenged, standing back and providing an overview and ensuring that long-term thinking is not driven out by short-term focus.
- Planning for organizational reasons, which involves communicating plans so as to obtain support/adherence to them, linking HR plans to business plans so as to influence them, (re)gaining corporate control over operating units, and coordinat-ing and integrating organizational decision making and actions.
HR planning operations include:
- Scenario planning,
- Demand and supply forecast,
- Action planning.
“Modern organizations, regardless of the size of their operations, operate in the conditions of an ever-changing environment, which is characterized by strong competition, growing consumer requirements, political and legal changes or innovations. The effect of these changes is the need to adapt to the organization, in. in the area of personal function. One of the most important conditions for effective operation is the creation of an effective team of employees. It is a strategic resource for the development of an enterprise and is just as important as the strategy organization or management of financial resources”
Enterprise Resource Planning
What is Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)? “Enterprise Resource Planning” is a term originally coined in 1990 by The Gartner Group to describe the next generation of Material Requirements Planning (MRP) software. The purpose was to integrate all facets of the business enterprise under one suite of software applications. The definition of ERP would be broadened to include almost any type of large integrated software package. The basic element is the database, which is usually shared by all other modules. These modules usually include the following areas:
- warehousing and inventory management,
- tracking of realized deliveries,
- production planning,
- production service,
- customer relationship management,
- human resources management (wages, human resources).
Manufacturing Resource Planning
MRP II model in relation to MRP has been extended with production capacity planning (CRP) and elements related to the sales process and supporting decision making at the levels of strategic production management. In addition to materials directly related to production, MRP II also includes auxiliary materials, human resources, money, time, fixed assets and others. Fundamental modules in an MRP II system are:
- Master production schedule (MPS),
- Item master data (technical data),
- Bill of materials (BOM) (technical data),
- Production resources data (manufacturing technical data),
- Inventories and orders (inventory control),
- Purchasing management,
- Material requirements planning (MRP),
- Shop floor control (SFC),
- Capacity planning or capacity requirements planning (CRP),
- Standard costing (cost control) and frequently also Actual or FIFO costing, and Weighted Average costing,
- Cost reporting / management (cost control).
- Abdullah A. M. A., Ambedkar B. (2017-2018),Evolution of Enterprise Resource Planning, Marathwada University, Journal of Engineering Technology and Management Science, India, Vol. I, No. 11, p. 1-5.
- Bulla D. N. and Scott P. M. (1994). Manpower requirements forecasting: a case example, Human Resource Planning Society, New York, pp 486-487.
- Eric L. Keller (2001). “Lessons Learned”, Manufacturing Systems, New York, Vol. XVII, No. 11, p. 44-50.
- Sępek M. (2010), Przedsiębiorczości i Zarządzanie, Społeczna Wyższa Szkoła Przedsiębiorczości i Zarządzania, Łódź, Vol. XI, No. 11, p. 52–71.
- Wight O. W., (1984). Manufacturing Resource Planinnig: MRP II: Unlocking America’s Productivity Potential, John Wiley & Sons, New York, p. 43-63.
- Bulla D. N. and Scott P. M. (1994), pp 486-487.
- Sępek M. (2010), pp 52–71.
- Eric L. Keller (2001), pp 44-50.
- Abdullah A. M. A. , Ambedkar B. (2017-2018), pp 1-5.
- Wight O. W., (1984), pp 43-63.
Author: Daniel Żołna