Training and development
Training and development is the process of imparting knowledge and skills to employees, designed to help them become more effective in the workplace. This process is often managed by human resources departments in organizations and typically focuses on expanding job-specific knowledge, technical competency, team-working skills, and leadership capabilities. Training and development can take many forms, including on-the-job training, seminars and workshops, e-learning, and classroom-based instruction. It can also include job shadowing, coaching, mentoring, and other individualized approaches. It is a continuous process that helps employees to develop their abilities and stay current on new technologies.
Example of training and development
- On-the-job training: This is a form of training where employees are taught specific skills, knowledge, and processes related to their job role. This can be done through observation, instruction, and practice. This type of training is often used for new hires as it allows them to learn on the job and gain the necessary skills to become successful in the position.
- Seminars and workshops: Seminars and workshops are typically conducted by an expert in the field and provide an overview of the topic. These events are often used to provide employees with more in-depth knowledge on a particular subject, such as customer service, communication skills, or team building.
- E-learning: E-learning is a form of training that occurs online, allowing employees to learn at their own pace. It typically consists of videos, tutorials, and online courses that employees can access at any time.
- Classroom-based instruction: This type of training is conducted in a group setting and typically involves an instructor providing a lecture or presentation on a particular subject. It is often used to introduce new concepts or skills to employees.
- Job shadowing: Job shadowing is a form of training where an experienced employee is paired with a new hire to provide guidance and assistance as they learn specific job roles.
- Coaching and mentoring: Coaching and mentoring involve an experienced employee providing guidance to a new hire as they learn their job role. They often provide tips and advice on how to improve performance and develop skills.
- Other individualized approaches: There are many other individualized training approaches that organizations can use to develop their employees’ skills and knowledge. These can include one-on-one coaching, online tutorials, and interactive simulations.
Formula of training and development - The Kirkpatrick Model
The Kirkpatrick Model is a widely used approach to evaluate the success of training and development programs. It is based on four levels of evaluation, each building on the one before it: reaction, learning, behavior, and results.
Reaction: This level measures the participants’ reaction to the training. It is based on surveys and feedback that are collected immediately after the training or development program takes place.
Learning: The second level measures what was learned in the program. It involves testing the participants to assess whether they have acquired the knowledge and skills taught in the program.
Behavior: The third level of evaluation measures whether the participants are able to apply what they have learned in the program. This can involve observing their behavior on the job or tracking their performance.
Results: The final level of evaluation is results-based. It measures the impact of the program on the organization by assessing changes in productivity, efficiency, cost savings, profitability, and customer satisfaction.
The formula for the Kirkpatrick Model is:
Reaction + Learning + Behavior + Results = Successful Training and Development Program
Steps of training and development
Training and development is an important process for any organization. It involves imparting knowledge and skills to employees that help them become more effective in the workplace. The following are the steps of training and development:
- Identifying the training needs: The first step is to identify the skills and knowledge required by the employees in order to perform their job tasks effectively. This should be done through analyzing the job requirements and assessing the current skills and knowledge of the employees.
- Planning and designing training programs: After the training needs have been identified, the next step is to plan and design appropriate training programs. This involves creating an outline of the program, determining the target audience, setting learning objectives, and selecting the appropriate delivery methods.
- Implementing the training program: Once the program has been designed, it is time to implement it. This involves designing the materials, assigning resources, scheduling the training sessions, and conducting the sessions.
- Evaluating the training: After the training program has been completed, it is important to evaluate its effectiveness. This should be done by assessing the participants’ knowledge and skills before and after the training, and measuring the return on investment.
- Continuous improvement: Training and development should be an ongoing process. This includes assessing the training needs periodically, updating the training program as needed, and continually evaluating the training program for its effectiveness.
Advantages of training and development
Training and development can provide a number of advantages to both employees and employers. These advantages include:
- Improved employee morale and job satisfaction, as employees feel valued and appreciated when their skills and abilities are developed.
- Increased productivity and efficiency, as employees become more capable of performing their job in a more effective and efficient manner.
- Enhanced skills and knowledge, allowing employees to acquire new skills and gain a deeper understanding of their job.
- Enhanced communication, which can improve collaboration and teamwork among employees.
- Improved ability to handle difficult situations, as employees can learn how to effectively handle challenging tasks.
- Improved customer service, as employees become more knowledgeable and able to better serve customers.
- Reduced costs, as training and development can be more cost-effective than hiring new employees with the required skills.
Limitations of training and development
Training and development can be a useful tool for businesses to improve the performance and engagement of their employees, however, there are some limitations that should be considered. These include:
- Time and Cost: Training and development can be a time-consuming and expensive endeavor. It can require significant resources, including time away from work to attend classes, workshops, or other training sessions. Additionally, the cost of materials and instructors must be factored into the overall cost of the program.
- Accessibility: Not all employees are able to access training and development opportunities due to geographical, financial, or other constraints. This can create a sense of unfairness and resentment among employees who are unable to take advantage of these opportunities.
- Misalignment: Training and development programs can be misaligned with the actual needs of the organization. Without proper assessment of the goals and needs of the organization, it can be difficult to design a program that meets the needs of the employees and the organization.
- Retention: Once the training and development program has been completed, it can be difficult to ensure that employees retain the knowledge and skills acquired during the program. Without proper follow-up and reinforcement, the knowledge and skills can be quickly forgotten and the program can be deemed ineffective.
Training and development can take many forms, including on-the-job training, seminars and workshops, e-learning, and classroom-based instruction. There are also several other approaches related to training and development that may help employees become more effective in the workplace:
- Job rotation - This technique involves rotating employees between different roles or departments within the organization. This gives employees the opportunity to gain new skills and knowledge, while also helping the organization to identify potential leadership or succession candidates.
- Cross-training - This approach involves training employees in multiple skills and disciplines. This allows employees to become more versatile and skilled in different areas, while also enabling the organization to better utilize its resources.
- Learning through experimentation - This approach encourages employees to experiment and learn from their mistakes in order to improve their performance. This type of learning can be highly effective in developing problem-solving skills and critical thinking.
- Gamification - This approach uses gaming elements such as points, rewards, and levels to engage employees in the learning process. This approach can be particularly effective in developing soft skills such as communication, collaboration, and creativity.
In summary, training and development can take many forms, and organizations can use a range of approaches to help employees gain the skills and knowledge they need to be successful in the workplace.
|Training and development — recommended articles|
|Learning by doing — Skills development — Skills transfer — Process of learning — Skills and abilities — Knowledge and experience — Job scope — Maximum potential — Performance appraisal process|
- Cohen, E. (2017). Employee training and development. In CSR for HR (pp. 153-162). Routledge.