Difference between revisions of "Job characteristics"

 
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<li>[[Employability skills]]</li>
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<li>[[Task identity]]</li>
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<li>[[Belbin team roles]]</li>
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<li>[[Management by objectives]]</li>
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<li>[[Business etiquette]]</li>
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<li>[[Burke-Litwin model]]</li>
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<li>[[Quality management principles]]</li>
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'''The job characteristic model''', also known as the '''job characteristic theory''', is a model „''developed by '''Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham''', which provides a conceptual framework for designing or enriching jobs.''”<ref>Lussier R. N., (2009), ''Management Fundamentals, Concepts Applications Skill Development'', South-Western Engage Learning, Springfield College, Massachusetts, p.182 </ref> (Lussier R.N., 2009, p.182). Job attributes are considered to have a significant effect on the efficiency of workers, their level of happiness and, as a result, on the service quality<ref>Grilo Pinto de Sa A. C., Ferreira Lopes de Moura e Sa, P. H., (2014), Job Characteristics and Their Implications on the Satisfaction Levels of call Center Employees: a study on a large telecommunications company, EVISTA BRASILEIRA DE GESTÃO DE NEGÓCIOS, RBGN, São Paulo, Vol. 16</ref>(Grilo Pinto de Sa A. C., Ferreira Lopes de Moura e Sa, P. H., 2014).
 
'''The job characteristic model''', also known as the '''job characteristic theory''', is a model „''developed by '''Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham''', which provides a conceptual framework for designing or enriching jobs.''”<ref>Lussier R. N., (2009), ''Management Fundamentals, Concepts Applications Skill Development'', South-Western Engage Learning, Springfield College, Massachusetts, p.182 </ref> (Lussier R.N., 2009, p.182). Job attributes are considered to have a significant effect on the efficiency of workers, their level of happiness and, as a result, on the service quality<ref>Grilo Pinto de Sa A. C., Ferreira Lopes de Moura e Sa, P. H., (2014), Job Characteristics and Their Implications on the Satisfaction Levels of call Center Employees: a study on a large telecommunications company, EVISTA BRASILEIRA DE GESTÃO DE NEGÓCIOS, RBGN, São Paulo, Vol. 16</ref>(Grilo Pinto de Sa A. C., Ferreira Lopes de Moura e Sa, P. H., 2014).
  

Revision as of 16:36, 22 May 2020

Job characteristics
See also

The job characteristic model, also known as the job characteristic theory, is a model „developed by Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham, which provides a conceptual framework for designing or enriching jobs.[1] (Lussier R.N., 2009, p.182). Job attributes are considered to have a significant effect on the efficiency of workers, their level of happiness and, as a result, on the service quality[2](Grilo Pinto de Sa A. C., Ferreira Lopes de Moura e Sa, P. H., 2014).

Job characteristics model is commonly used by managers or any other team members. (Ten sam przypis) Job characteristics model users focus on 3 elements, such as „job dimensions, psychological states of employees, and the strength of employees’ need for growth[3]. The JCM enables to develop job satisfaction and employee performance through adjusting the job dimensions itself. When done successfully, it can help with creating appropriate conditions for employees, so as to make them motivated and satisfied by their own performance and role. The main assumptions of the model are that job satisfaction is created by the appearance of three key psychological states:

  • experienced meaningfulness of work,
  • experienced responsibility for work
  • knowledge of the results of work.

These stages, in turn, are the result of the five job core dimensions such as:

  • skill variety,
  • task identity,
  • task significance,
  • autonomy,
  • feedback.

Job core dimensions

Skill varietyis the number of diverse tasks that make up a job and the number of skills used to perform the job[4] - According to Job Characteristics Model The more complex and challenging the job, the greater satisfaction of employees who do it. This makes them feel more needed and their work much more meaningful, contrary to repetitive tasks that do not require much input or creativity.

Task identityis the degree to which an employee performs a whole identifiable task[5] - According to the theory, once a person knows what has to be done, understands when the job is finished and done properly and, at the same time, is able to see the outcome of what is achieved, job becomes more meaningful to it.

Task significanceis an employee’s perception of the importance of the task to others - the organization, the department, coworkers, and/or customers[6] - That is the degree to which work has a profound effect on the life of other individuals within the organization, as well as on society itself.

Autonomyis the degree to which the employee has discretion to make decisions in planning, organizing and controlling the task performed[7] - It determines the degree of freedom a worker has with regard to the way in which he performs his work and the tasks concerned.

Feedbackis the extent to which employees find out how well they perform their task[8] - The theory states that when an employee receives positive feedback, their self-esteem and motivation increase. However, even when the feedback is not positive, the employee knows that he or she should change something in order to progress.

Critical Psychological Stages

Meaningfulness of work describes the degree to which the employee understands the job being intrinsically important and also can communicate its significance to other individuals and the surrounding[9](Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R., 1975). Responsibility for outcomes describes the level to which the employee is directly responsible for the effects of his or her job[10]. Knowledge of results describes the extent at which the employee knows and acknowledges how well he or she does the job[11].

Footnotes

  1. Lussier R. N., (2009), Management Fundamentals, Concepts Applications Skill Development, South-Western Engage Learning, Springfield College, Massachusetts, p.182
  2. Grilo Pinto de Sa A. C., Ferreira Lopes de Moura e Sa, P. H., (2014), Job Characteristics and Their Implications on the Satisfaction Levels of call Center Employees: a study on a large telecommunications company, EVISTA BRASILEIRA DE GESTÃO DE NEGÓCIOS, RBGN, São Paulo, Vol. 16
  3. Lussier R. N., (2009), Management Fundamentals, Concepts Applications Skill Development, South-Western Engage Learning, Springfield College, Massachusetts, p.182
  4. Lussier R. N., (2009), Management Fundamentals, Concepts Applications Skill Development, South-Western Engage Learning, Springfield College, Massachusetts, p.182
  5. Lussier R. N., (2009), Management Fundamentals, Concepts Applications Skill Development, South-Western Engage Learning, Springfield College, Massachusetts, p.182
  6. Lussier R. N., (2009), Management Fundamentals, Concepts Applications Skill Development, South-Western Engage Learning, Springfield College, Massachusetts, p.182
  7. Lussier R. N., (2009), Management Fundamentals, Concepts Applications Skill Development, South-Western Engage Learning, Springfield College, Massachusetts, p.182
  8. Lussier R. N., (2009), Management Fundamentals, Concepts Applications Skill Development, South-Western Engage Learning, Springfield College, Massachusetts, p.182
  9. Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R. ,1975, Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 60(2), p.159-170
  10. Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R. ,1975, Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 60(2), p.159-170
  11. Hackman, J. R. & Oldham, G. R. ,1975, Development of the job diagnostic survey. Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 60(2), p.159-170

References

Author: Wiktoria Tabak