Path goal theory
Path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, as developed by Robert House, determines what a leader has to do to achieve a high level of productivity and morale in a given situation. In general, a leader tries to clarify the path to a goal for a group member so that he receives personal payoffs. At the same moment, this group member's job satisfaction and performance increase. Similar to the expectancy theory of motivating people on which it is based, path-goal theory is multifaced and has a few versions (A. J. DuBrin 2015, p. 152).
Path-goal theory of leadership takes into consideration the effectiveness of alternative leader behaviors in different situations. The idea that there are no uniformly effective management behaviors and that situational factors determine optimal leadership behavior, path-goal theory is terminated in a class of leadership theories termed "situational theories of leadership". Simply stated, some of management theories as such as path-goal theory emerged from a realization that characteristics of the situational context in which leaders, find themselves must play a crucial determining role in how a leader will behave to optimize important employee outcomes such as satisfaction, motivation, and work performance.As one of several situational leadership theories, path-goal theory has found a prominent and enduring place among management theories within the field of management. Almost half a century has passed since Robert House in 1971, yet the theory continues to a foundation of chapters on leadership and in most organizational behavior textbooks. As such, the inclusion of the theory in an encyclopedia is clearly warranted (E.K.Hessler 2013, p. 580).
Features of path-goal theory
Key features of path-goal theory (P. G. Northouse 2012, p. 145):
- Path-goal theory attempts to integrate the motivation principles of expectation theory into a theory of management. This makes path-goal theory special because no other approach to leadership deals directly with motivation like this. Path-goal theory forces us to keep asking questions like this about subordinate motivation: How can I motivate subordinates to feel that they can work? How can I help them feel that if they successfully do their work, they will get a reward? What can I do to improve the payoffs that subordinates expect from their job? Path-goal theory is designed to keep these kind of questions, that answers issues of motivation, at the forefront of the leader's mind.
- Perhaps its greatest feature is that path-goal theory offers a model that in certain ways is very practical. The representation of the model shows us the important ways managers help subordinates. It shouts out for leaders to clarify the paths to the goals and help them to remove the obstacles to the goals. To sum up, the theory resembles leaders that the overarching purpose of leadership is to guide and teach subordinates as they move along the path to achieving common goals .
Examples of Path goal theory
- Directive Leadership: In a directive leadership style, the leader provides clear directions and instructions to the group members. This style works best when tasks are simple and goals are well-defined. A good example of this style is a military chain of command, where the leader provides directives and the team obeys them.
- Supportive Leadership: A supportive leader is one who is understanding and attentive to the needs of the group members. This style works best when team members are feeling anxious or need encouragement. A good example of this is a coach who provides emotional support and guidance to his players.
- Achievement-Oriented Leadership: This style focuses on setting a high level of performance for the team members. It works best when team members are highly motivated and willing to work hard. A good example of this style is an entrepreneur who sets ambitious goals and motivates his employees to reach them.
- Participative Leadership: This style of leadership involves the leader consulting with the team members and taking their views into account when making decisions. This works best when the leader has established trust and respect among the team members. A good example of this style is a leader who solicits feedback from his team before making a decision.
Advantages of Path goal theory
One of the advantages of the Path-Goal Theory of leadership effectiveness is that it can be used to provide guidance to leaders in order to help them create an environment that increases the motivation and performance of their subordinates. Specifically, the theory suggests that leaders should:
- Clarify the path to goals for their followers - by providing clear expectations, providing support when needed, and offering timely feedback on performance.
- Establish goals that are achievable and rewarding - by setting meaningful goals and providing rewards that are meaningful and motivating.
- Set a good example - by demonstrating the behaviours and values that you want to see in your followers.
- Provide support - by offering encouragement and providing resources.
- Recognize and reward good performance - by acknowledging achievement and providing rewards that are meaningful.
Overall, Path-Goal Theory provides leaders with a useful framework to help them create an effective and motivating environment for their followers. It is a useful tool to help leaders understand the motivations of their subordinates and provide appropriate guidance and support.
Limitations of Path goal theory
Path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness is a useful model for achieving high levels of productivity and morale among group members, however, it has certain limitations. These limitations include:
- The theory does not address the influence of external factors such as the organization's culture, environment, and resources on the leader's ability to provide a path to the goal.
- The theory only considers the leader-follower relationship, ignoring other relationships between team members.
- The theory does not fully consider the complexity of different leadership styles and their effects on team performance.
- The path-goal theory does not provide a comprehensive explanation of the dynamics of the leader-follower relationship.
- The theory does not take into account the impact of individual and group differences on the effectiveness of goal setting and attainment.
- The theory does not provide enough guidance on how to assess the level of effectiveness of a particular leadership style and adapt it to the situation.
In addition to the Path-goal theory of leadership effectiveness, a few other approaches are also worth mentioning, such as:
- Transformational leadership theory, which suggests that leaders should create a vision, inspire followers and create a sense of collective purpose.
- Situational leadership theory, which suggests that leaders should assess the situation and adjust their style according to the situation.
- Servant leadership, which suggests that leaders should serve the followers and put their needs first.
- Authentic leadership, which suggests that leaders should be authentic and honest with followers.
Overall, these approaches provide a variety of ways for a leader to be effective in different situations. In particular, the Path-goal theory is useful for understanding how a leader can provide clear direction and support to followers so that they can achieve their goals.
|Path goal theory — recommended articles|
|Levels of leadership — Management styles — Leadership models — Expectancy theory — Acquired needs theory — Theory X and Y — Job characteristics — Informal leader — Hersey and Blanchard model|
- Dubrin A. (2015), Leadership: Research Findings, Practice, and Skills, Cengage Learning, p. 152, Boston
- Griffin R., Moorhead G. (2013), Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations, Cengage Learning, Boston
- Hessler E. (2013), Encyclopedia of Management Theory, Sage Publications, p. 580, Los Angeles
- Northouse P. (2012), Leadership: Theory and Practice, Sage Publications, p. 145, Los Angeles
Author: Szymon Olejniczak