# DMAIC methodology

DMAIC - this is a method, model, whose task is to use data to improve, optimize and streamline projects and processes in the company. The abbreviation DMAIC is Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. These are the next steps to be taken to comprehensively examine and develop the problem and the task we have undertaken. DMAIC is one of the Six Sigma tools, but it is also used for other improvement methods[1][2][3].

Six Sigma is a data-driven approach, statistical-based, disciplined and continuous improvement methodology for eliminating defects in a product, process or service[4].

## Define

The first step is to look as closely as possible in this situation, this process, which is to be solved. It is necessary to look at and define a few elements, the problem, the customers and the critical results of the process, that is, what is not as it should be. The research looks at the goal, resources, project and its scope and whether the project schedule is at a high level[5][6].

## Measure

The next step to be taken by teams using DMAIC methodologies is the accurate and object-oriented establishment of reference points for a specific moment in time as a starting point for further improvements. The most important element, the aim of this step, is to collect all the necessary data, to present it in numerical form. A measure requires the establishment and presentation of comparable data (the team decides what they are comparing) from this starting point to the point when the project using the DMAIC method is completed, to be able to compare and draw conclusions, to check what the deviations are. It is a very important step in the DMAIC methodology[7][8].

## Analyze

Step three, which is only possible after a good passing of the previous two. Here the focus is on the analyze of the collected data, determining what is the cause of the problem that is to be eliminated, determining their total value throughout the process, reaching the source of the problem. The project team selects 3-4 causes using tools such as voting, or others to help in this process. Creation of a data collection plan, which will determine the share of this cause in the problem. Repeat the analyze to determine the most important causes. In this step, the DMAIC methods are used for complex analytical tools. Important elements[9][10]:

• Exchange and prioritization of problem causes
• How the process input looks like and how it affects the process output part (Pareto charts, histograms, line charts)
• A map of the process to determine where the cause of the problem occurs, its location in the process.

## Improve

After a thorough analyze of the causes of the problems, there is time to test and implement the solutions that were tried to find. Sometimes it happens in stages in full, everything depends on the complexity of the problem. Finding a solution is often connected with difficult and risky decisions. However, the solution is created in a team that uses various methods of solving such issues - brainstorming, DOE (Design of Experiments). A solution that can be predicted without the implementation to reduce the risk of failure is the most desirable. The simplest solutions are often the best, followed by the creation of an action plan, implementation[11][12].

## Control

The last step of the DMAIC methodology is to study the changes so that their deviations are as small as possible, bringing them to sustainability is the goal. The final step is the time to summarize - examine the benefits of the contract, the changes introduced, close the project and determine the possibilities for this methodology to be a guide and used in further stages and processes in the company[13][14].

## Footnotes

1. Lynch D. L.,Bertolino S. and Cloutier E. (2003)
2. Peterson K. (2003)
3. Shankar R. (2009)
4. Peterson K. (2003)
5. Peterson K. (2003)
6. Shankar R. (2009)
7. Peterson K. (2003)
8. Shankar R. (2009)
9. Peterson K. (2003)
10. Shankar R. (2009)
11. Peterson K. (2003)
12. Shankar R. (2009)
13. Lynch D. L.,Bertolino S. and Cloutier E. (2003)
14. Mandelbaum J., Hermes A.,Parker D., Williams H. (2012)

## References

Author: Dawid Kuczowicz