Espoused values are "normative statements of desired outcomes or conditions that an organization believes ought to exist. However, espoused values do not become basic underlying assumptions automatically unless they work effectively and repetitively over time" (Hernandez S. R., O'Connor S. J. 2009, s. 103).
It should be mentioned that beliefs, despite similar definitions, are not the same thing as espoused values. The main difference is that beliefs provide cognitive justification for organizational operations/actions, while values provide the emotional energy and also motivation to fulfill them (actions) (Hernandez S. R., O'Connor S. J. 2009, s. 103).
While choosing the right values for company, the person should be aware of why "those" values and what is their use. They should do three things: satisfy the needs of the entrepreneurs (or employees), meet the needs of all employers (the company) and also satisfy other stakeholders (for example purchasers/clients, investors, local communities in which the company operates and also the society as whole. However, espoused values cannot differ from the "mission" of the company, they should be clearly connected with the unique character or the function of the organization (Barrett R. 2014, s. 156).
Types of espoused values
Some people indicate two types of values as following (Barrett R. 2014, s. 156):
- foundational or core values
- operational values
The first of the mentioned types of values is something that everyone considers extremely important for the functioning of the organization. For example, in a chemical factory, employee safety and environmental protection should be considered as fundamental values. Against that, the operational value is the value that allows the efficient functioning of the organization. For instance, values such as teamwork and trust should be treated as operational values - they affect all workers at the company. The actual combination of core values and operational values will depend on the unique function or unique nature of the organization (Barrett R. 2014, s. 156).
- Aquinas P. G. (2008), Organization Structure and Design - Applications & Challenges, Excel Books, New Delhi, s. 432
- Barrett R. (2014), The Values-Driven Organization: Unleashing Human Potential for Performance and Profit, Routledge, Abingdon, s. 156
- Bass B. M., Bass R. (2008), The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications, Free Press, New York, s. 50
- Brooks L. J., Dunn P.(2012), Business&Professional Ethics for Directors, Executives&Accountants, Sixth Edition, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, s. 57
- Hernandez S. R., O'Connor S. J. (2009), Strategic Human Resources Management in Health Services Organizations, Third Edition, Delmar Cengage Learning, New York, s. 103
- Moran B. B., Stueart R. D., Morner C. J. (2013), Library and Information Center Management, 8th Edition, Libraries Unlimited, California, s. 134
- Pierce J. G. (2010), Is the Organizational Culture of the U. S. Army congruent with the professional development of its senior-level officer corps?, Strategic Studies Institute, Pennsylvania, s. 63
- Trower C. A. (2013), The Practitioner's Guide to Governance as Leadership: Building High-Performing Nonprofit Boards, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, s. 127
Author: Urszula Bochenek