An important factor in shaping the relationship between employees and the employer is the culture of the organization. Organization culture means business personality, its soul, which distinguishes it from other organizations, the usual way of thinking, feeling, and action shared, absorbed and assimilated by the employees.
Culture of the organization on the one hand determines the mutual relations between the employer and the employees, on the other hand allows the identification of employees with the objectives of the organization and their involvement in realization of these.
Corporate culture is largely determined by the needs of its members. Therefore, it is important to identify the needs and aspirations of individual employees in order to integrate them with the objectives of the organization, which is fundamental to the development of the motivation to work.
Classification of workers' needs by M. Armstrong, divided them into two groups: the first group includes the need for professional development, which is a source of personal development, and the second is: fair remuneration, supervision, working conditions and just administrative actions. The author states that meeting the needs of the group does not motivate individuals to achieve greater job satisfaction and better results, but all manager can expect is to prevent dissatisfaction and poor job performance.
Components of organizational culture
Each culture has its own symbols and rules, specific language, value patterns, management styles, behaviour patterns and success definition. These specific characteristics distinguish one organization from another. Generally, organizational culture elements are divided into three types:
- thought patterns, that simplify group members different situations assessments,
- behaviour patterns, that provide specific reaction patterns to different situations,
- symbols, that help unify and strengthen thought patterns and behaviour patterns among group members.
Functions of organizational culture
Culture of the organization is the building blocks of the desired organizational behaviour, plays a large role in the organization and has the following functions:
- Helps organizations cope with the uncertainty arising from the variability of environment and internal operating conditions,
- Builds its identity defined as the overall features of the social bond which connects members of the organization and allows to distinguish it from others.
- Reduces uncertainty, gives a sense of security,
- Integrates people, giving a sense of belonging,
- Provide knowledge and information about the world, broadens horizons
- A method of shaping human behaviour.
Classifications and research on organizational culture
Nowadays organizational cultures take on various aspects of:
- relationship to nature,
- time orientation,
- human nature,
- relationship to action,
- responsibility location,
- social space.
Studies conducted by G. Hofstede in 40 countries and among almost 116 thousands of employees has shown that five dimensions of organizational culture can be introduced:
- power distance (whether employee pays attention to hierarchy and differences in force levels),
- individualism vs. collectivism (if in the foreground is an individual or social group),
- masculinity vs. femininity (whether social interactions are built on competition or protectiveness),
- uncertainty avoidance (if high or low level of uncertainty avoidance is practised),
- long- or short-term orientation (whether organization focuses on past and present or future).
- Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (1991). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind (Vol. 2). London: McGraw-Hill.
- Hofstede, G. H., & Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage.
- Hofstede, G., Neuijen, B., Ohayv, D. D., & Sanders, G. (1990). Measuring organizational cultures: A qualitative and quantitative study across twenty cases. Administrative science quarterly, 286-316.
- Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. The Academy of Management Executive, 7(1), 81-94.
- Schein, E. H. (2006). Organizational culture and leadership (Vol. 356). John Wiley & Sons.