A repertory of communication genres is contained in formal communication. Those communication genres are target-driven and function connected, they are flowing through the hierarchy, abide by prescribed rules and transcending expanse and time. This kind of communication can be different in terms of a form and content. However, all of communications which are formal are also target-driven, well-balanced and have a structure. A relevant advantage of formal communication is its faculty of standardizing communication in order to provide reliableness. Another forte of formal communication is its faculty in documenting (L. F. Gómez, S. L. Dailey 2017).
Formal communication in organizations
Formal communication contains information which is managed and organized. This information is shared with proper persons to provide action which is coordinated in the whole organization.Due to predefining of formal communication by the structure which is institutional or organizational, formal communication perceived as the simplest way of communicating in work.(D. M. E. Nwogbaga, O. U. Nwankwo, D. O. Onwa 2015).
A role of formal communication is unavoidable in a life of organization. An organization is officially recognizing formal communication's channels. Alongside of those channels instructions and information are passing downward and upward. Providing information in organizations by formal communication renders to simplifying managers' activities. A formal structure and hierarchy are things which formal communication follows. This kind of communication can be downward, upward or side-to-side. There are connections between formal communication and efficiency, satisfaction from job, reduces costs of coordination, cut conflict, enhancing of trust and general gratification and eventually cut negative fallouts of hearsay which conduce to reaching gratification (N. Sheykh Al Eslami Kandlousi, A. J. Ali, A. Abdollahi 2010).
Relatedness between formal and informal communication
Formal communication communicate information which are either deficient or equivocal while informal channels communicate information which are not usually characterized by such features.However, in case of not obtaining adequate information by employees with formal communication, there they count on informal communication (N. Sheykh Al Eslami Kandlousi, A. J. Ali, A. Abdollahi 2010).
Nowadays, social media are relevant instrument of communication in a market of business. Formal communication can be included in advertising, sales promotion, public relation, selling which is personal or in direct marketing. This kind of communication is possible to exist between marketer and customer due to social media through informing them about marketing's information and maintain brand in the internet(Y. S. Lim, T. H. Ng, S. F. Yeo, Y. H. Kerk. 2018).
The role of formal communication in conflits
Formal communication can help in avoiding crisis and conflicts. Due to existence of control measures in it has capability of filtering information and properly managing information which may have caused crisis and conflicts. However it does not mean that formal communication can not cause crisis and conflits(D. M. E. Nwogbaga, O. U. Nwankwo, D. O. Onwa 2015).
Examples of Formal communication
- Email: This is a digital communication that is used by businesses, organizations, and individuals to communicate with each other. For example, a company can use email to send important messages to its employees or customers.
- Reports: These are written documents that provide detailed information about a particular topic. Companies often use reports to communicate information to stakeholders, such as shareholders, customers, or employees.
- Presentations: These are used to communicate a message to an audience. Presentations are usually given in a visual form, such as PowerPoint slides, and often include audio and video components.
- Memos: This is a type of communication used to provide information to a large group of people. Memos are often used to communicate policy changes or updates, as well as to provide instructions or guidelines.
- Letters: These are often used for formal communication between two parties. Letters can be used to communicate business proposals, job offers, or other important messages.
- Press releases: These are used to communicate newsworthy information to the public. Press releases are used by companies, organizations, and government agencies to get the word out about their projects, products, and services.
Advantages of Formal communication
Formal communication is a network of communication genres that are target-driven and function connected, flowing through the hierarchy, abiding by prescribed rules and transcending expanse and time. The advantages of formal communication include:
- Achievement of objectives: Formal communication helps ensure that group and organizational objectives are met by providing clear direction and expectations.
- Time-efficient: Formal communication is often conducted in a professional and efficient manner that saves time by providing information to multiple people at the same time.
- Formalized procedures: Formal communication allows for the development of formal procedures that can be used to standardize communication practices.
- Uniformity: Formal communication ensures uniformity in the way messages are sent and received, ensuring that all messages are consistent and compliant with organizational policies and procedures.
- Accountability: Formal communication helps to ensure accountability by providing a framework to track and monitor communication activity. This helps to ensure that individuals and groups are held accountable for their actions.
- Compliance: Formal communication helps to ensure compliance with organizational policies and procedures by providing clear expectations and guidelines for communication practices.
- Organizational efficiency: Formal communication helps to ensure that organizations are able to maintain efficiency by streamlining communication processes and reducing miscommunication.
Limitations of Formal communication
Formal communication has certain limitations that must be taken into consideration for successful communication to occur. These limitations include:
- Time Constraints: Formal communication is often limited by the amount of time it takes to communicate. Messages may take longer to send and receive, and the response time may be longer than necessary for the issue at hand.
- Language: Formal communication often relies on a specific language and may not be suitable for all individuals. This can lead to misunderstandings and confusion when trying to communicate with someone who does not understand the language used.
- Hierarchy: Formal communication is often limited by the hierarchy of the organization. This can lead to messages being filtered or not reaching the intended recipient.
- Tone: Formal communication often relies on a specific tone and may not take into consideration the feelings of the individuals involved. This can lead to messages being misinterpreted or ignored.
- Rigidity: Formal communication is often limited by the prescribed rules and regulations of the organization. This can lead to messages being too rigid and not allowing for flexibility and creativity in communication.
Formal communication approaches include:
- Emotional communication – this is the ability to express and understand the emotions of others in order to build relationships and foster a better understanding of one another.
- Interpersonal communication – this is a form of communication between two or more people that involves a shared understanding of the message being conveyed.
- Nonverbal communication – this is the use of body language, facial expressions, and gestures to convey meaning without the use of words.
- Organizational communication – this is the exchange of information within an organization to facilitate the completion of tasks and the achievement of objectives.
- Public speaking – this is the art of delivering a speech or presentation to an audience in order to inform, persuade, or entertain.
In summary, formal communication approaches involve the use of emotional, interpersonal, nonverbal, organizational, and public speaking communication methods in order to effectively convey a message.
- Gómez L. F., Dailey S. L. (2017). Formal Communication, "The International Encyclopedia of Organizational Communication".
- Lim Y. S., Ng T. H., Yeo S. F., Kerk Y. H. (2018). The influence of formal and informal communication in social media on generation y online purchase intentions "The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication - TOJDAC"
- Nwogbaga D. M. E., Nwankwo O.U., Onwa D. O. (2015). Avoiding School Management Conflicts and Crisis through Formal Communication "Journal of Education and Practice", Vol.6, No.4
- Sheykh Al Eslami Kandlousi N., Ali A. J., Abdollahi A. (2010). Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Concern of Communication Satisfaction: The Role of the Formal and Informal Communication "International Journal of Business and Management", Vol. 5, No. 10.
Author: Justyna Kulesa