A repertory of communication genres is contained in formal communication. Those communication genres are target-driven and function connected, they are flowing through the hierarchy, abide by prescribed rules and transcending expanse and time. This kind of communication can be different in terms of a form and content. However, all of communications which are formal are also target-driven, well-balanced and have a structure. A relevant advantage of formal communication is its faculty of standardizing communication in order to provide reliableness. Another forte of formal communication is its faculty in documenting (L. F. Gómez, S. L. Dailey 2017).
Formal communication in organizations
Formal communication contains information which is managed and organized. This information is shared with proper persons to provide action which is coordinated in the whole organization.Due to predefining of formal communication by the structure which is institutional or organizational, formal communication perceived as the simplest way of communicating in work.(D. M. E. Nwogbaga, O. U. Nwankwo, D. O. Onwa 2015).
A role of formal communication is unavoidable in a life of organization. An organization is officially recognizing formal communication's channels. Alongside of those channels instructions and information are passing downward and upward. Providing information in organizations by formal communication renders to simplifying managers' activities. A formal structure and hierarchy are things which formal communication follows. This kind of communication can be downward, upward or side-to-side. There are connections between formal communication and efficiency, satisfaction from job, reduces costs of coordination, cut conflict, enhancing of trust and general gratification and eventually cut negative fallouts of hearsay which conduce to reaching gratification (N. Sheykh Al Eslami Kandlousi, A. J. Ali, A. Abdollahi 2010).
Relatedness between formal and informal communication
Formal communication communicate information which are either deficient or equivocal while informal channels communicate information which are not usually characterized by such features.However, in case of not obtaining adequate information by employees with formal communication, there they count on informal communication (N. Sheykh Al Eslami Kandlousi, A. J. Ali, A. Abdollahi 2010).
Nowadays, social media are relevant instrument of communication in a market of business. Formal communication can be included in advertising, sales promotion, public relation, selling which is personal or in direct marketing. This kind of communication is possible to exist between marketer and customer due to social media through informing them about marketing's information and maintain brand in the internet(Y. S. Lim, T. H. Ng, S. F. Yeo, Y. H. Kerk. 2018).
The role of formal communication in conflits
Formal communication can help in avoiding crisis and conflicts. Due to existence of control measures in it has capability of filtering information and properly managing information which may have caused crisis and conflicts. However it does not mean that formal communication can not cause crisis and conflits(D. M. E. Nwogbaga, O. U. Nwankwo, D. O. Onwa 2015).
- Gómez L. F., Dailey S. L. (2017). Formal Communication, "The International Encyclopedia of Organizational Communication".
- Lim Y. S., Ng T. H., Yeo S. F., Kerk Y. H. (2018). The influence of formal and informal communication in social media on generation y online purchase intentions "The Turkish Online Journal of Design, Art and Communication - TOJDAC"
- Nwogbaga D. M. E., Nwankwo O.U., Onwa D. O. (2015). Avoiding School Management Conflicts and Crisis through Formal Communication "Journal of Education and Practice", Vol.6, No.4
- Sheykh Al Eslami Kandlousi N., Ali A. J., Abdollahi A. (2010). Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Concern of Communication Satisfaction: The Role of the Formal and Informal Communication "International Journal of Business and Management", Vol. 5, No. 10.
Author: Justyna Kulesa