|Methods and techniques|
A good cost estimation has a direct impact on performance and efficiency of a business enterprise. This may result in the loss of the company and goodwill on the market or large losses for the company. Cost estimation is the focal point of design and operational strategies and a key agenda for managerial policies and business. Also the client's satisfaction in terms of low costs, high quality and product delivery on time play a significant role .
Types of product costs
At the cost of producing the product (product cost) consists of the following items,:
- direct materials
- purchase costs,
- own semi-finished products,
- fuel and technological energy,
- direct wages,
- other direct costs.
Fixed vs. Variable Cost
Fixed cost - cost that the company incurs even during the period in which production is equal to zero. They remain unchanged (constans) for a wide range of activities over a period of time and may change over time, eg due to a change in macroeconomic conditions. Typical factors affecting the change in the level of fixed costs include, for example: changes in the organization of the enterprise, changes in the technology used, sales of machinery and production equipment
Cost estimation techniques
- Algorithmic technique
- Fuzzy logic approach .
- Cooper R.; Kaplan, Robert S. (Apr 1988). How cost accounting distorts product costsManagement Accounting, Apr 1988; 69, 10, pages 20-27.
- Mazumder J· A. Schifferer · J. Choi, Direct materials deposition: designed macro and microstructure Mat Res Innovat (1999) 3:118–131.
- Niazi Adnan, (May 2006).Product Cost Estimation: Technique Classification and Methodology Review Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, MAY 2006, Vol. 128, pp. 563-575.
- Shehab E.M., H.S. Abdalla Manufacturing cost modelling for concurrent product development Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing 17 (2001) UK, pages 341-353.
- Product Cost Estimation: Technique Classification and Methodology Review, MAY 2006, Vol. 128/ 563
- Direct materials deposition: designed macro and microstructure (1999)
- How cost accounting distorts product costs, Apr 1988, p.20
- Manufacturing cost modelling for concurrent product development, (2001) p.347
Author: Paulina Ściera