The goal of transport infrastructure is to ensure the basic conditions for the development of socio-economic system, as well as other elements of the economy.
Accordingly, transport infrastructure involves man-made basic facilities of roads (linear infrastructure) and transport points (infrastructure point). It affects the economy and society by creating favourable conditions for the movement of people and goods (cargo) in direct and indirect form. From an economic point of view the most important feature of transport infrastructure is the public nature of the services it provides. Of course, there are exceptions, there is also private transport infrastructure (ex. within company)
Transport - is a set of actions involving the movement of material goods in time and space by using appropriate technical means.
Transport infrastructure basically consist of three main groups:
- transport points (airports, ports, etc.),
- auxiliaries used for the maintenance of roads and transport points.
Transport infrastructure consist of five main branches of transport:
- inland shipping and sea transport,
Intermodal shipping (combined transport) – involves moving goods on the different modes (means) of transport. This means that for the carriage of cargo, uses more than one branch of the transport, while at the same time using only one load unit e.g. a container for the whole journey.
Combined transport in practice usually consists of combining road transport and rail transport. Freight carriers provide loads of cars to rail transport. Successively by rail cargo is now transported to the station of destination. To carry goods, companies use containers, interchangeable car bodies or semitrailers.
Advantages and disadvantages of intermodal shipping
The advantages of intermodal transport:
- Reduced transportation costs,
- Ensuring a quick and timely delivery of cargo especially in international transport,
- Reduce the risk of damage to the goods,
- Increase the capacity of a single carriage of a larger batch of cargo,
- Increase the availability and quality of transport services,
- Increase the number of possible ways of transport,
- The ability to use different methods of loading and unloading.
Examples of Transport infrastructure
- Roads: Roads are often the most visible form of transport infrastructure. They are the most commonly used form of transportation and are the foundation of many countries’ economic development. Roads are built to connect cities, towns and villages and provide access to resources and services. Examples of road infrastructure include highways, expressways, bridges, tunnels, toll roads and cycle paths.
- Railways: Railways are an important component of a country’s transport infrastructure. They are used to transport heavy cargo and passengers over long distances quickly and efficiently. Examples of railway infrastructure include tracks, stations, depots, signaling systems and rolling stock.
- Airports: Airports are vital to international trade and tourism. They are used to transport passengers and cargo over large distances quickly and safely. Examples of airport infrastructure include runways, terminals, control towers, navigation systems and hangars.
- Ports: Ports are an essential part of a country's transport infrastructure. They are used to transport goods to and from foreign countries. Examples of port infrastructure include shipping docks, warehouses, berths, cranes and other loading equipment.
- Public Transit: Public transit is an important element of a nation's transport infrastructure. It is used to move people from one place to another in an efficient and cost-effective manner. Examples of public transit infrastructure include buses, metro systems, light rail systems, trams and ferries.
Transport infrastructure plays an important role in supporting the development of the socio-economic system, as well as other elements of the economy. Other approaches related to Transport infrastructure include:
- Developing a comprehensive transport policy that takes into consideration all aspects of transport and its effects on the economy. This includes the development of a strategic plan for the transport system, as well as the establishment of measures to ensure the efficient use of resources.
- Ensuring the safety and security of passengers and goods through the implementation of appropriate regulations and controls. This includes the implementation of appropriate measures to prevent accidents and incidents, as well as the enforcement of traffic laws.
- Improving access to transport services, such as public transport and freight services. This includes the development of infrastructure to facilitate the movement of people and goods, as well as the development of policies to make transport services more accessible.
- Supporting the development of a sustainable transport system. This includes the implementation of measures to reduce emissions and pollution, as well as the promotion of alternative modes of transport, such as walking and cycling.
In summary, the development of an effective transport infrastructure is essential in order to ensure the development of the socio-economic system, as well as other elements of the economy. Other approaches related to transport infrastructure include developing a comprehensive policy, ensuring safety and security, improving access to transport services, and supporting the development of a sustainable transport system.
- Intermodal freight transport @ Wikipedia.
- Janic, M. (2007). Modelling the full costs of an intermodal and road freight transport network. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 12(1), 33-44.
- Khadaroo, J., & Seetanah, B. (2007). Transport infrastructure and tourism development. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(4), 1021-1032.