Types of stakeholders
|Types of stakeholders|
|Methods and techniques|
Stakeholders-organizations or individuals who participate in the creation of a project (they actively participate in its implementation) or are directly interested in the results of its implementation. Stakeholders can influence an organization.
- employees - persons who are responsible for the implementation of the project
- shareholders and board of directors - thanks to the right to vote, have an influence on the organization. They do not interfere in the matters of running the organization, but derive income from their shares.
- managers (line and staff)
- families of employees
External stakeholders (outsiders) include clients and suppliers and other groups outside the organization, but interested in his activity.
- customers - various institutions and organizations such as: individuals, other businesses, schools, distributors and hospitals. Exchange cash for goods or services of the company.
- suppliers - a person or organization that supply materials, raw materials and services for the company
- service providers
- resource providers
- competitors (local and international)- competition motivates the company to improve its products or services to achieve better results.
- environmental protection bodies
- state authorities, local government - their role is to control the organization to ensure compliance with the principles of free market.
- special interests groups
- financial institutions (banks, insurance) - they provide funds for business development and project implementation
- media (press, radio, TV), social media - they enable contact between external and internal market participants, help in disseminating information about the company's activities and project implementation.
- trade unions, etc.
Degree of connection with the organization
- First level stakeholders - these are natural persons or legal agreements with formal organization of contracts or agreements. Without their involvement, the company can not survive. Belong to this group, shareholders, employees, clients, suppliers, investors and the public sector: government and local communities.
- Second level stakeholders - these are individuals or groups of people that can both influence the organization and stay under its influence, but without any transactions with her, what the organization can do without them. Belong to this group, the media and interest groups.
Forms of stakeholder commitment
Suitable identification of stakeholders enables them to be involved in the organization's activities. There are four main forms.
- communication - the most common and simplest form of stakeholder engagement. It allows you to communicate about the functioning of the organization, undertaken initiatives for both internal and external stakeholders.
- consultations - the aim is to get to know the opinions of stakeholders in the matter subject of consultations.
- partnership - a form of creating relations with stakeholders, which requires from them the biggest commitment. It is usually long-lasting and demanding work with a lot of work.
- dialogue - usually takes place during various advisory panels, stakeholder forums, summary meetings.
- Savage, G. T., Nix, T. W., Whitehead, C. J., & Blair, J. D. (1991). Strategies for assessing and managing organizational stakeholders. The executive, 5(2), 61-75.
- R. Edward Freeman, S. Ramakrishna Velamuri, Brian Moriarty (2006) Company Stakeholder Responsibility: A New Approach to CSR , 6-7.
- Archie B. Carroll (1991) The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders, 43-46.
- R. Edward Freeman, Jeffrey S. Harrison, Andrew C. Wicks, Bidhan Parmar, Simone de Colle (2010) "Stakeholder Theory. The State of the Art", Cambridge University Press, 24-26.
Author: Marta Bodzioch