# Uncertainty and risk

Uncertainty and risk |
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**Uncertainty and risk** are closely related concepts in management. Uncertainty is a lack of predictability or knowledge about the outcome of an investment or decision. It can arise from external factors such as changes in the business environment or from internal factors such as the effectiveness of a decision-making process. Risk is the possibility that an investment or decision will lead to a loss or other negative outcome. It is usually associated with the likelihood of a negative outcome and the severity of the consequences. Uncertainty and risk are both necessary components of decision-making, as they provide the decision-maker with the data needed to determine the expected return of an investment or decision.

## Example of uncertainty and risk

**Investing in the stock market**: When investing in the stock market, there is always a degree of uncertainty and risk. On the one hand, there is the uncertainty of not knowing which stocks will perform well in the future, and there is the risk of losing money if the stock price drops.**Starting a business**: Starting a business is a risky venture, as there is a high degree of uncertainty and risk associated with it. The entrepreneur may not know how the business will perform in the market, and there is the risk of losing money if the business fails to turn a profit.**Taking a loan**: Taking a loan is a risky decision, as there is a high degree of uncertainty and risk associated with it. The borrower may not know how long it will take to pay off the loan, and there is the risk of defaulting on the loan if the borrower is unable to make the payments.

## Formula of uncertainty and risk

Uncertainty and risk are often expressed in terms of probability. A probability is the likelihood of a particular outcome occurring. Probabilities are usually expressed as a decimal or percentage. The formula for calculating the probability of a given event is:

$$P(event) = \frac{Number \ of \ favorable \ outcomes}{Total \ number \ of \ possible \ outcomes}$$

For example, if you were to calculate the probability of flipping a coin and it landing on heads, you would use the following formula:

$$P(heads) = \frac{1}{2}$$

This means that the probability of a heads outcome is 0.5 or 50%.

Risk is often expressed as the expected value of an investment or decision. The expected value is calculated using the following formula:

$$E(X) = \sum_{i=1}^n P_i(x_i)x_i$$

where $$P_i(x_i)$$ is the probability of the outcome $$x_i$$ and $$x_i$$ is the expected return of that outcome.

For example, if you were to calculate the expected value of a coin toss, you would use the following formula:

$$E(X) = (0.5)(1) + (0.5)(-1) = 0$$

This means that the expected value of the coin toss is 0. In other words, the expected return of the coin toss is 0, regardless of whether it lands on heads or tails.

## When to use uncertainty and risk

Uncertainty and risk should be considered when making any investment or decision. They provide important information that can help decision-makers weigh the potential benefits and drawbacks of their actions. Specifically, uncertainty and risk should be taken into account when considering:

- Strategic decisions - Strategic decisions involve long-term investments and commitments, and the potential risks and uncertainties must be weighed carefully.
- Financial decisions - Uncertainty and risk are especially important in financial decisions, as they can determine the financial rewards or losses that are associated with an investment or decision.
- Investment decisions - Investment decisions involve the allocation of resources to a particular asset or security, and the risks associated with the investment must be carefully considered.
- Risk management - Risk management involves assessing, measuring, and managing the risks associated with an investment or decision. Uncertainty and risk should be taken into account when determining the appropriate level of risk management.
- Business decisions - Business decisions involve the allocation of resources to a particular activity or business operation, and the potential risks and uncertainties must be carefully evaluated.

## Types of uncertainty and risk

Uncertainty and risk come in many different forms. Uncertainty can be broadly divided into monetary and non-monetary uncertainty, while risk can be classified according to the level of potential loss. Some common types of uncertainty and risk include:

**Monetary Uncertainty**: This type of uncertainty relates to the potential for financial losses due to changes in the prices of goods, services, or currencies. It can also refer to the potential for unexpected costs associated with a decision, such as taxes and fees.**Non-monetary Uncertainty**: This type of uncertainty refers to the potential for non-financial losses associated with a decision, such as reputation damage or the loss of a key customer.**Market Risk**: This type of risk relates to the potential for losses due to changes in the overall markets, such as changes in interest rates or stock prices.**Credit Risk**: This type of risk relates to the potential for losses due to changes in a company’s credit status, such as a downgrade or default.**Operational Risk**: This type of risk relates to the potential for losses due to changes in a company’s processes or operations, such as changes in supply chains or regulations.**Regulatory Risk**: This type of risk relates to the potential for losses due to changes in regulations, such as changes in tax laws or environmental standards.**Legal Risk**: This type of risk relates to the potential for losses due to changes in a company’s legal environment, such as changes in labor laws or court decisions.

## Advantages of uncertainty and risk

Uncertainty and risk are essential components of any management decision, as they allow decision-makers to assess the potential risks and rewards of their choices. The advantages of uncertainty and risk include:

**Increased awareness**: Making decisions under uncertainty and risk can help decision-makers become aware of the potential risks and rewards associated with their choices. This can lead to better decision-making and more informed decisions.**Improved flexibility**: Uncertainty and risk can help decision-makers become more flexible and adaptive to changing business environments. By accounting for potential risks and rewards, decision-makers can make more informed decisions that are better suited to changing market conditions.**Enhanced creativity**: The presence of uncertainty and risk can help decision-makers come up with creative solutions to difficult problems. By taking into account potential risks and rewards, decision-makers can explore a range of new ideas and approaches that may not have been considered otherwise.**Reduced risk**: By taking into account potential risks and rewards, decision-makers can reduce the potential for loss or other negative outcomes. By understanding potential risks, decision-makers can make decisions that are less likely to lead to significant losses.

## Limitations of uncertainty and risk

Uncertainty and risk can be powerful tools for making informed decisions, but they also have their limitations. The following are some of the key limitations of uncertainty and risk:

- Uncertainty and risk can be difficult to accurately measure due to their subjective nature. It is often difficult to quantify the likelihood of a negative outcome and the severity of its consequences.
- Uncertainty and risk can lead to decision paralysis if they are not managed properly. Decision makers can become overwhelmed by the possibilities and may be unable to make a decision due to the lack of certainty.
- Uncertainty and risk can lead to poor decision-making if the decision is based on incomplete or inaccurate data. Information that is incomplete or not up to date can lead to inaccurate predictions about the future and can lead to bad decisions.
- Uncertainty and risk can lead to overconfidence if the decision maker does not properly consider risks or if the decision maker does not have enough experience with the situation. This can lead to decisions that are not well thought out and can have negative outcomes.

In addition to uncertainty and risk, there are other approaches related to decision-making. These include:

**Probability**: Probability is a measure of the likelihood that an event or outcome will occur. It can be used to estimate the expected return of a decision or investment by taking into account the probability of different outcomes.**Heuristics**: Heuristics are rules of thumb that are used to make decisions quickly and intuitively. They can be helpful in situations where there is not enough time to consider all of the available information.**Systematic Approach**: A systematic approach to decision-making involves breaking down a problem into its component parts and making decisions based on a set of predetermined criteria. This can help to ensure that decisions are made objectively and consistently.**Risk Aversion**: Risk aversion is the tendency to avoid riskier investments or decisions. This can help to minimize the potential losses associated with an investment or decision.

Overall, uncertainty and risk are important components of decision-making and can help to ensure that decisions are made with the best possible chance of success. Other approaches such as probability, heuristics, systematic approach, and risk aversion can also be used to help inform decision-making and ensure that decisions are made with a full understanding of the risks and potential rewards.

## Suggested literature

- Bammer, G., & Smithson, M. (Eds.).
*(2012)*. Uncertainty and risk: multidisciplinary perspectives. Routledge. - Rigotti, L., & Shannon, C. (2005).
*Uncertainty and risk in financial markets*. Econometrica, 73(1), 203-243.